Getting Powdery Mildew Under Control in Cucurbits, ... Getting Powdery Mildew Under Control in Cucurbits,

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  • Getting Powdery Mildew Under Control in Cucurbits, and Updates on Fungicides

    for Vegetables

    Mohammad Babadoost University of Illinois babadoos@illinois.edu

  • Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits and Its

    Management

    Babadoost

  • Cucurbits ___________________________________ Melons  Cucumbers  Gourds  Pumpkins (JOL & processing)  Squash (summer & winter) Watermelon

    Babadoost

  • Cantaloupe Cucumber

    Squash Watermelon Powdery mildew on cucurbits

  • Powdery Mildew: pumpkin Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew: Pathogens _____________________________________  Two fungal species  Podosphaera xanthii  Erysiphe cichoracearum

     Identification: difficult (sexual stage is not common)

    We began identifying species

    Babadoost

  • Reproductive bodies of Podosphaera xanthii

  • Reproductive bodies of Erysiphe cichoracearum

  • Powdery Mildew: Symptoms _____________________________________  Symptoms & Sings  Powdery fungal growth

    (Mycelium and conidia)  Infected tissues  Vines  Petioles  Upper and lower leaf surfaces  Fruit stems

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew: vine infection

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew: lower surface of leaf

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew: upper surfaces of leaves

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew: fruit stem

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew: fruit stems Babadoost

  • Powdery mildew fungus on plants Babadoost

  • Babadoost

    Disease Cycle of Powdery Mildew

    Cucurbits

  • Fungal Characteristics ____________________________________  Obligate parasite (biotrophic)  Heterothalic (mating types)  Sexual state: cleistothecium  Asexual state: conidia  Feed on epidermal cells  Races have been documented

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew Characteristics  Occurrence: annually occurring  Initial inoculum: conidia  Inoculum sources: southern states and

    greenhouses  Conidia viability: 7-8 days  Disease cycle: in 3-7  Favored: dryness with RH (50-100%)  Temperatures: 50-90°F (68-80°F)  Rain and water: unfavorable  Yield losses: significant Babadoost

  • Susceptibility of Cucurbits to Powdery Mildew in the Midwest  More susceptible cucurbits  Squash (summer & winter)  Pumpkins (JOL)  Melons

     Less susceptible cucurbits  Cucumbers  Processing pumpkins Watermelons Babadoost

  • Expected Time for Powdery Mildew in Illinois and Indiana ______________________________________  South: around July 15  Central and North: after July 20

    Babadoost

  • Important Management Point ______________________________________  Powdery mildew develops first

    on vines  Then, powdery mildew moves

    onto lower leaf surfaces  Powdery mildew on upper leaf

    surfaces indicates outbreaks

    Babadoost

  • Powdery mildew on pumpkin Babadoost

  • Powdery mildew on cucurbits is the same

    Babadoost

  • Management of cucurbit Powdery Mildew _________________________________

     Cultural management  Plant resistance  Biocontrol  Chemical control

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew Management ______________________________________

     Cultural management  Crop rotation  Avoid shade areas  Scout the field for powdery

    mildew on vines and lower leaf surfaces

    Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew Management ______________________________________

     Plant resistance  Resistant cultivars: many

    resistant/tolerant cultivars of cantaloupe, cucumber, squash, pumpkin

    Babadoost

  • Crop Cultivar Crop Cultivar Cucumber Cyclone Pumpkin Big Moon

    Thunder Jack-Be-Little Slice King Magic Lantern

    Melon Laguna Merlin All Start Mystic Apollo Oro Duro Rocio

    Squash Hurakan Sunglo Patriot

    Cucurbits Resistant/Tolerant to Powdery Mildew

    Babadoost

  • Management of cucurbit Powdery Mildew ______________________________________

     Biocontrol  AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis),

    fungus (Ecogen)  Mycotal (Lecanicillium lecanii),

    fungus (Koppert Biological Sys.)  Serenade (Bacillus subtilis),

    bacterium (AgraQuest) Babadoost

  • Powdery Mildew Management ______________________________________

     Chemical control  ˃ 15 Fungicides available

    Babadoost

  • Pumpkin & Squash: Cabrio (11) Flint (11) Fontelis (7) Inspire Super (3,9) Microthiol (S) (M) Merivon (7,11) Pristine (7,11) Procure (3) Quadris (11) Quadris Opti (11,M) Quintec (13) Rally (3) Topsin M (1) Torino (U6)

    Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Watermelon:

    Flint (11), Fontelis (7) Inspire Super (3,9) Luna Experience (3,7) Luna Sensation (7,11) Merivon (7,11) Microthiol (S) (M) Pristine (7,11) Procure (3), Quadris (11) Quadris Opti (11,M) Quintec (13) Rally (3), Satori (11) Topsin M (1), Torino (U6)

    Fungicides for Cucurbit Powdery Mildew

  • Fungicides for Cucurbit Powdery Mildew FRAC Fungicides Fungicide Group - Risk

    1 Topsin M MBC (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) (Cell division) - High risk

    3 Inspire Super, Procure, Rally, Luna Experience

    DMI (Dethylation Inhibitors) (Cell membrane) - Medium risk

    7 Fontelis, Merivon, Pristine, Luna Experience, Luna Sensation

    SDHI (Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors) (Respiration)- Medium-highrisk

    9 Inspire Super AP (Anilino-pyrimidines) (Protein synthesis) - Medium risk

    11 Cabrio, Flint, Merivon, Pristine, Quadris, Quadris Opti, Luna Sensation, Satori

    Strobilurin: QoI (Quinone outside Inhibitors) (Respiration)- High risk

    13 Quintec (Aza-naphthalenes) (Signal transduction) - Medium risk

    M2 Microthiol (S) (Inorganic) (Multi-site activity) Low risk

    U6 Torino (Phenyl-acetamide), Unknown

  • Fungicides for Cucurbit Powdery Mildew _______________________________________ Most effective fungicides in my trials:

    Quintec, Procure, Fontelis, Torino, Pristine, Quadris Opti, Microthiol Quintec was the most effective Alternate Quintec with another fungicide Strobilurins are good for 10-14 days,

    others for 7 days (max: 10 days) 3-6 sprays are needed Scout inside canopy, apply at first sign Plan for spray during Jul 20 – Sep 10

    Babadoost

  • Updates on Vegetable Diseases ______________________________________  2015 Vegetable Production Guide Table 33 (pages 74-76): common and

    scientific names of vegetable pests Table 12 (page 37): yields of vegetables

    (updates) White rust: added to cole crops Bacterial fruit blotch: new recommendat. Merivon fungicide: cole crops, Brassica

    leafy green, cucurbits, onion chapter  Priaxor fungicide (7+11): fruiting vegetables  Aoroach fungicide (11): legumes

    Babadoost

  • Updates on Vegetable Diseases ______________________________________ Cucurbit Disease  Bacterial spot: a serious disease on

    pumpkins, gourds, and winter squash. No effective control yet.

     Sclerotinia blight of pumpkins: problem  Edema: problem in white pumpkins  Downey mildew: seed-borne reported  Downy mildew control: chlorothalonil

    prior to infection; Revus, Ranman, Zampro, Gavel … + chlorothalonil with disease sign infection

    Babadoost

  • Bacterial spot on squash fruit

    Babadoost

  • Collapse of pumpkin fruit infected by Xanthomonas cucurbitae

    Babadoost

  • Updates on Vegetable Diseases _____________________________________ Cucurbit Disease  Bacterial spot: a serious disease on

    pumpkins, gourds, and winter squash. No effective control yet. Quintec fungicide has some effects

    Babadoost

  • Babadoost Pumpkins with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

  • Babadoost Pumpkins with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

  • Updates on Vegetable Diseases _____________________________________ Cucurbit Disease  Sclerotinia blight of pumpkins:

    serious problem some years. Fontelis can be considered.

    Babadoost

  • Edema on white pumpkin in IL in 2014

  • Updates on Vegetable Diseases _____________________________________ Cucurbit Disease  Edema: problem in white pumpkins

    (Moonshine)

    Babadoost

  • Downy mildew on cucumber Babadoost

  • Updates on Vegetable Diseases _____________________________________ Cucurbit Disease  Downey mildew: seed-borne reported  Downy mildew control: chlorothalonil

    prior to infection; Revus, Ranman, Zampro, Gavel … + chlorothalonil with disease sign infection

    Babadoost

  • Updates on Vegetable Diseases Other Vegetable Disease  Basil downy mildew: a serious disease,

    effective control with either Quadris, Revus, or Ranman + ProPhyt

     Tomato leaf mold (Vulvia fulva): now i