Getting Started in Digital Photography

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<ul><li><p>TR</p><p>Y</p><p>O</p><p>U</p><p>T</p><p>N</p><p>E</p><p>W</p><p>P</p><p>H</p><p>O</p><p>T</p><p>O</p><p>S</p><p>K</p><p>I</p><p>L</p><p>L</p><p>S</p><p>U</p><p>N</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>R</p><p>S</p><p>T</p><p>A</p><p>N</p><p>D</p><p>C</p><p>A</p><p>M</p><p>E</p><p>R</p><p>A</p><p>M</p><p>O</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>S</p><p>DIGITAL</p><p>PHOTOGRAPHY</p><p>GETTING STARTED IN</p><p>IMPROVEYOURPHOTOSKILLSANDTAKEBETTERPICTURES</p><p>H</p><p>O</p><p>W</p><p>T</p><p>O</p><p>T</p><p>A</p><p>K</p><p>E</p><p>T</p><p>O</p><p>P</p><p>P</p><p>O</p><p>R</p><p>T</p><p>R</p><p>A</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>S</p><p>AL</p><p>N</p><p>E</p><p>W</p><p>!</p><p>E</p><p>X</p><p>P</p><p>E</p><p>R</p><p>T</p><p>A</p><p>D</p><p>V</p><p>I</p><p>C</p><p>E</p><p>M</p><p>A</p><p>S</p><p>T</p><p>E</p><p>R</p><p>C</p><p>A</p><p>M</p><p>E</p><p>R</p><p>A</p><p>S</p><p>E</p><p>T</p><p>T</p><p>I</p><p>N</p><p>G</p><p>S</p><p>B</p><p>E</p><p>G</p><p>I</p><p>N</p><p>N</p><p>E</p><p>R</p><p>-</p><p>F</p><p>R</p><p>I</p><p>E</p><p>N</p><p>D</p><p>L</p><p>Y</p><p>G</p><p>U</p><p>I</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>S</p><p>L</p><p>E</p><p>A</p><p>R</p><p>N</p><p>N</p><p>E</p><p>W</p><p>P</p><p>H</p><p>O</p><p>T</p><p>O</p><p>S</p><p>K</p><p>I</p><p>L</p><p>L</p><p>S</p><p>E</p><p>S</p><p>S</p><p>E</p><p>N</p><p>T</p><p>I</p><p>A</p><p>L</p><p>P</p><p>H</p><p>O</p><p>T</p><p>O</p><p>K</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>A</p><p>N</p><p>D</p><p>M</p><p>O</p><p>R</p><p>E</p><p>!</p><p>MASTER YOUR</p><p>DIGITAL CAMERA!</p><p>SETTINGSANDADVICEFOR</p><p>ALLDSLR&amp;CSCUSERS</p></li><li><p>GETTING STARTED IN</p><p>DIGITALPHOTOGRAPHY</p><p>INSIDE!</p><p>EXPERTADVICE TO</p><p>HELPYOUTAKE</p><p>BETTERPICTURES</p><p>FROMTHEEXPERTSAT</p><p>Trycreativetechniques</p><p>Followourstep-by-stepguidesand learn</p><p>howtoshootstunning imageswithease</p><p>Takebetterpictures</p><p>TheUKs leadingphotographersofferexpert</p><p>advice tohelpyou improveyourphotography</p><p>Choose the best gear</p><p>Authoritativeadviceonchoosingandusing</p><p>lenses,ash,studiokit&amp;muchmore!</p><p>Understandyourcamera</p><p>Essentialadviceexplained ina jargon-free</p><p>style forbeginners todigital photography</p><p>Learnmodesandsettings</p><p>Adviceoneverything fromautofocus to</p><p>exposuremodestomakingthemostofRaw</p><p>Master keyphoto skills</p><p>Findouthowbest touse features like</p><p>apertures, shutterspeedsand ISOratings</p><p>PHOTOGRAPHYDIGITAL</p><p>T</p><p>H</p><p>E</p><p>I</p><p>D</p><p>E</p><p>A</p><p>L</p><p>C</p><p>O</p><p>M</p><p>P</p><p>A</p><p>N</p><p>I</p><p>O</p><p>N</p><p>F</p><p>O</p><p>R</p><p>Y</p><p>O</p><p>U</p><p>R</p><p>D</p><p>I</p><p>G</p><p>I</p><p>T</p><p>A</p><p>L</p><p>C</p><p>A</p><p>M</p><p>E</p><p>R</p><p>A</p><p>!</p><p>MASTER</p><p>YOUR</p><p>CAMERA!</p><p>SETTINGSAND</p><p>ADVICEFORALL</p><p>MAJORDSLR&amp;</p><p>CSCBRANDS</p></li><li><p>Whenyouve nishedenjoying</p><p>this magazine please recycle</p><p>ProducedbyDigital SLRPhotography at:</p><p>6 SwanCourt, Cygnet Park,</p><p>Peterborough, CambsPE78GX</p><p>Phone:01733567401. Fax01733352650</p><p>Email: enquiries@digitalslrphoto.com</p><p>Online:www.digitalslrphoto.com</p><p>Editorial</p><p>To contact editorial phone: 01733567401</p><p>EditorDaniel Lezano</p><p>daniel_lezano@dennis.co.uk</p><p>Art Editor LukeMarsh</p><p>luke_marsh@dennis.co.uk</p><p>Features EditorCarolineWilkinson</p><p>caroline_wilkinson@dennis.co.uk</p><p>Designer LukeMedler</p><p>luke_medler@dennis.co.uk</p><p>Editorial Co-ordinator Jo Lezano</p><p>jo_lezano@dennis.co.uk</p><p>Editorial contributors: Brett Harkness,</p><p>RossHoddinott, Lee Frost, Bjorn Thomassen,</p><p>PaulWard&amp;DonnaWillingham</p><p>Advertising&amp;Production</p><p>Display&amp;Classield Sales: 02079076651</p><p>AdvertisingSalesGuyScott-Wilson</p><p>guy_scott-wilson@dennis.co.uk</p><p>Sales Executive JoshuaRouse</p><p>joshua_rouse@dennis.co.uk</p><p>ProductionControllerDanStark</p><p>dan_stark@dennis.co.uk</p><p>Publishing&amp;Marketing</p><p>NICKYBAKERDIGITALPRODUCTIONMANAGER</p><p>DHARMESHMISTRYBOOKAZINEMANAGER</p><p>ROBINRYANPRODUCTIONDIRECTOR</p><p>JULIANLLOYD-EVANSMDOFADVERTISING</p><p>DAVIDBARKERNEWSTRADEDIRECTOR</p><p>BRETTREYNOLDSCHIEFOPERATINGOFFICER</p><p>IANLEGGETTGROUPFINANCEDIRECTOR</p><p>JAMESTYECHIEFEXECUTIVE</p><p>FELIXDENNISCHAIRMAN</p><p>All rights in the licensedmaterial belong to</p><p>Felix Dennis, Halo orDennis Publishing and</p><p>maynot be reproduced,whether inwhole or</p><p>part, without their priorwritten consent.</p><p>Digital SLRPhotography is a registered trademark.</p><p>Thepublishermakeseveryeffort toensure themagazines</p><p>content is correct.Allmaterial published inGettingStarted in</p><p>DigitalPhotographyandDigital SLRPhotography is copyright and</p><p>unauthorised reproduction is forbidden.Theeditorsandpublishers</p><p>of thismagazinegivenowarranties, guaranteesorassurancesand</p><p>makeno representations regardinganygoodsor servicesadvertised</p><p>in this edition.No responsibility canbeaccepted for imagesor</p><p>correspondence lost ordamaged inpostor transit.</p><p>For licensingcontactHannahHeagneyon+44 (0)2079076134</p><p>oremail hannah_heagney@dennis.co.uk</p><p>For syndicationcontactAnjDosaj-Halai on+44 (0)2079076132</p><p>oremailAnj_Dosaj-Halai@dennis.co.uk</p><p>The Magbook brand is a trademarkofDennis</p><p>PublishingLtd. 30ClevelandSt, LondonW1T</p><p>4JD.Company registered inEngland.AllmaterialDennis</p><p>PublishingLtd, licensedbyFelden2009, andmaynotbe</p><p>reproduced inwholeorpartwithout theconsentof thepublishers.</p><p>While every carewas takenduring the production of this</p><p>Magbook, the publishers cannot be held responsible for the</p><p>accuracy of the information or any consequence arising from</p><p>it. Dennis Publishing takes no responsibility for the companies</p><p>advertising in thisMagbook.</p><p>Thepaperusedwithin thisMagbook isproduced fromsustainable</p><p>bre,manufacturedbymillswithavalid chainof custody.</p><p>GettingStarted inDigitalPhotography ISBN1-907779-47-7</p><p>Printed byBenhamGoodheadPrint (BGP)</p><p>Understandingyourdigitalcamera 3</p><p>GETTINGSTARTEDINDIGITALPHOTOGRAPHY</p><p>Welcome...</p><p>If youve recently started using a digital SLR or Compact System</p><p>Camera, you have taken a major step towards shooting better</p><p>pictures. Boasting an incredible level of versatility, delivering superb</p><p>image quality and forming the heart of a system that can be</p><p>expanded with lenses, ashguns and various other accessories, these</p><p>interchangeable-lens cameras has led to a revolution in photography.</p><p>While these digital cameras are relatively easy to use for simple</p><p>snapshot photography, the truth is that getting the very best from your camera kit</p><p>and, more importantly, developing the creative side of your photography, requires</p><p>some time and dedication to learning new techniques and skills. The good news is</p><p>that Getting Started in Digital Photography, produced by the experts at Digital SLR</p><p>Photography magazine, is packed with information, advice and techniques that will</p><p>help you become a better photographer. If youve ever looked at images from the</p><p>professionals and wondered how they managed to get such great results, then this</p><p>guide is for you. Weve covered all the basics of photography and provided tried and</p><p>tested practical techniques for shooting stunning images, along with expert advice</p><p>to choosing the best gear and pages of inspiring images to get your creative juices</p><p>owing. Good luck with your photography. All the best!</p><p>DANIEL LEZANO, EDITOR</p><p>All our experts are teammembers or regular contributors toDigital SLRPhotographymagazine.</p><p>Formore expert advice and inspiration, pick up the latest issue, available on the secondTuesday</p><p>of everymonth. For further information, visit themagazineswebsite atwww.digitalslrphoto.com</p><p>Meet ourdigitalphotographyexperts</p><p>ROSSHODDINOTT</p><p>A regular contributor to</p><p>Digital SLR Photography,</p><p>Ross is an award-winning</p><p>nature photographer,</p><p>specialising in natural history</p><p>andmacro photography.</p><p>BRETTHARKNESS</p><p>Brett isoneof theUKs</p><p>leadingportraitandsocial</p><p>photographersandruns</p><p>regularphotoworkshops.</p><p>For furtherdetails, visit:</p><p>www.brettharkness.com</p><p>DANIELLEZANO</p><p>Editor Lezano is passionate</p><p>about photography and has</p><p>been taking pictures for over</p><p>25 years. He is especially keen</p><p>on shooting portraits with</p><p>natural light and in the studio.</p><p>PAULWARD</p><p>Paul is a professional</p><p>photographer who regularly</p><p>contributes to Digital SLR</p><p>Photography. Hes expert in</p><p>all types of photography from</p><p>portraits to landscapes.</p><p>COVERIMAGE:LEEFROST</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>gettingstarted indigitalphotography</p><p>Understandyourcamera</p><p>06 Introduction to digital cameras</p><p>We take a look at the key features of digital</p><p>SLRs and Compact System Cameras and how</p><p>they influence the quality of your images.</p><p>18 Program andScene modes</p><p>How different fully-automatic modes work.</p><p>20 Aperture-priority AE mode</p><p>The most useful exposure mode explained.</p><p>22 Shutter-priority AE mode</p><p>How to choose and use shutter speeds.</p><p>24 Manual mode</p><p>Take full control by dialling M for manual.</p><p>26 Autofocussystems</p><p>How your cameras AF system works and how</p><p>you can set it up for sharp results every time.</p><p>34 Image Qualitysettings</p><p>The pros and cons of Raw and JPEG.</p><p>36 Understanding ISO ratings</p><p>Learn how to control ISO ratings.</p><p>38 Noise reduction</p><p>How to take care of noise at high ISOs.</p><p>40 Shooting in Raw</p><p>Capture images in maximum detail.</p><p>46 White Balance</p><p>HowWhite Balance affects colour accuracy.</p><p>48 Customise your camera</p><p>Set up your camera how you like it!</p><p>Phototechnique</p><p>52 Fundamentals of composition</p><p>Where to place your subject in the frame.</p><p>54 The basics of exposure</p><p>Fundamentals of exposure explained.</p><p>56 Metering patterns</p><p>discover how your camera exposes a scene.</p><p>58 Exposure overrides</p><p>How you can control the exposure system.</p><p>60 Fine-tune your exposures</p><p>Improve results using exposure aids.</p><p>62 Dominatingskies</p><p>How to avoid underexposing an image</p><p>with sky-filled vistas.</p><p>64 The basics of apertures</p><p>The importance of aperture settings.</p><p>66 Apertures and exposure</p><p>How aperture changes the image.</p><p>68 Apertures and depth-of-field</p><p>Understand this essential relationship.</p><p>70 Apertures and landscapes</p><p>How to ensure pin-sharp scenics.</p><p>72 Understandingdepth-of-field</p><p>The basics of how depth-of-field works and</p><p>how to use it for portraits and close-ups.</p><p>76 The principle ofshutterspeeds</p><p>the basics of using shutter speeds.</p><p>78 Shutterspeeds and exposure</p><p>How shutter speeds influence exposures.</p><p>80 Usingfastshutterspeeds</p><p>how to freeze a moment in time.</p><p>82 Capture motion in landscapes</p><p>Blur moving elements in general scenics.</p><p>84 Shoot traffic trails</p><p>Use long exposures for great night shots.</p><p>86 Guide to daylight portraits</p><p>how to control and manipulate daylight in</p><p>sunlight, cloud, shade and for silhouettes.</p><p>Choosing&amp;usingkit</p><p>100 Lenses</p><p>Essential advice on optics, including the</p><p>humble standard 50mm, wide-angles,</p><p>telephotos and macro lenses.</p><p>112 Usingflash</p><p>Master flash modes with our in-depth look at</p><p>built-in and hotshoe-mounted flashguns.</p><p>124 Studioflash</p><p>expert advice on how to use studioflash.</p><p>128 Our favourite photo accessories</p><p>The essential items to add to your outfit,</p><p>including remotes, tripods and bags.</p><p>130 Ensure perfect exposures</p><p>How to use our free grey card to give perfect</p><p>exposures every time.</p><p>turn to page 122 to find out about</p><p>our fantastic subscription offers</p><p>56 metering patterns</p><p>30 autofocus</p><p>46 white balance</p><p>80 fast shutter speeds</p><p>38 noise reduction</p></li><li><p>132</p><p>PAGES</p><p>OFEXPERT</p><p>ADVICEAND</p><p>TECHNIQUE</p></li><li><p>Knowyourcamerainside&amp;out!</p><p>Digital cameras boast an incredible</p><p>amount of technology. Our guide</p><p>aims to explain all the key features</p><p>and reveal a few secrets, too.</p><p>UNTIL VERY RECENTLY, if you wanted a digital camera with interchangeable</p><p>lenses, then your choice was easy: most of us would opt for a 35mm-based</p><p>digital SLR, (while aminority of pros chose amedium-format DSLR costing</p><p>tens of thousands of pounds). However, in the last couple of years, Compact</p><p>SystemCameras (CSCs), also known as hybrids, have come on to the scene,</p><p>offering an alternative option.</p><p>This latest generation hasmany similarities to DSLRs, offering virtually</p><p>identical specications and operating in a similarmanner, albeit with one or</p><p>twomajor differences. The handling, features and performance of digital</p><p>SLRs have been rened and improved over the years so that users nd them</p><p>as simple as possible to operate. Itmakes sense then, sincemost</p><p>manufacturers of CSCs also produce digital SLRs, that CSCs feature similar</p><p>operating systems to their SLR counterparts. Not only does thismeanCSCs</p><p>have the potential to be great performers as its technology is already quite</p><p>advanced, but itmakes the crossover fromone camera type to another fairly</p><p>easy for thosewhowant tomake the transition.</p><p>In this section of the guide, well be looking at all the key features of</p><p>your digital camera, explaining what they do and how you should use</p><p>them to improve the quality of your images. Well also be comparing</p><p>and contrasting the twomain interchangeable-lens camera systems.</p><p>As youll discover, both sharemany common areas and only a few</p><p>practical differences. In this months issue, we provide a general</p><p>overview of a cameras main functions and look in detail at the</p><p>heart of every digital camera: the image sensor.</p><p>Understanding howyour cameraworks is key to getting</p><p>the best from it.We take a look at themain features youll</p><p>find ondigital SLRs andCompact SystemCameras</p><p>Interchangeable-</p><p>lenscameras</p><p>6 Understandingyourdigitalcamera</p><p>GETTINGSTARTEDINDIGITALPHOTOGRAPHY</p></li><li><p>8 Understandingyourdigitalcamera</p><p>GETTINGSTARTEDINDIGITALPHOTOGRAPHY</p><p>Key features and controls found on DSLRs &amp; CSCsKey features and controls found on DSLRs &amp; CSCs</p><p>REGARDLESSOFWHETHER</p><p>youre using a digital SLR</p><p>(DSLR) or a Compact</p><p>SystemCamera (CSC), you</p><p>have in your possession an</p><p>incredibly impressive piece</p><p>of equipment. Your camera</p><p>is packedwith cutting-edge</p><p>technology designed to</p><p>deliver perfect images for</p><p>the vastmajority of shooting</p><p>situations, aswell as,more</p><p>recently, HD video. Despite</p><p>all these features, the</p><p>cameras are also designed</p><p>to be as easy to use as</p><p>possible, with somemodels</p><p>managing to be simpler to</p><p>use than others. That said,</p><p>with somuch on offer, its</p><p>easy to get confused as to</p><p>the purpose of some</p><p>functions, or to totally</p><p>overlook useful facilities that</p><p>couldmake your life easier.</p><p>No problem:were here to</p><p>help. Our informative guide</p><p>covers everything you need</p><p>to know to get themost from</p><p>your camera and,more</p><p>importantly, help you take</p><p>better pictures.</p><p>Anatomyofaninterchangeable-lenscamera</p><p>Findyourwayaroundyourdigitalcamerawithourannotatedguide.Asyoull</p><p>discover, therearemoresimilaritiesthandifferencesbetweenaDSLRandaCSC!</p><p>1</p><p>3</p><p>7</p><p>2</p><p>4</p><p>6</p><p>5</p><p>9</p><p>8</p><p>1)Shutter release button:The</p><p>shutter button has a two-stage</p><p>action press halfway to activate</p><p>the AF andmetering systems and</p><p>fully depress it to take the exposure.</p><p>Did you know? If youve left your</p><p>camera switched on for a few</p><p>minutes and its entered standby</p><p>mode to preserve battery power,</p><p>tap the shutter release gently to</p><p>switch it back on. Alsoworth noting</p><p>is thatmany cameras have a</p><p>custom function that can set</p><p>whether the shutter release locks</p><p>AF, exposure or both.</p><p>2) Integral flash:Found on the</p><p>vastmajority of cameras. However,</p><p>a few top-endDSLRs and some</p><p>CSCs lack this facility, catering for</p><p>ash via the hotshoemount only.</p><p>Many CSCs lacking an integral ash</p><p>have a small clip-on unit supplied</p><p>alongwith the camera. Flash</p><p>coverage is usually good enough for</p><p>amoderate wide-angle lens and</p><p>subjects within a couple ofmetres</p><p>away. All offer a choice of ash</p><p>modes. The automode is ne for</p><p>capturing standard low-light</p><p>portraits, but there are a number of</p><p>ashmodes on offer that allow for</p><p>farmore creativity, including</p><p>slow-sync and rear-curtain sync.</p><p>3) Flash-up button:</p><p>Press to pop up the</p><p>integral ash (if your</p><p>camera has one).While</p><p>some cameras automatically raise</p><p>the ashwhen required in certain</p><p>fully-automaticmodes, all require</p><p>you to activate itmanually should</p><p>youwish to use it in a semi-auto or</p><p>manual exposuremode.</p><p>Did you know?With some</p><p>cameras, you can press and hold</p><p>the Flash-up button to access</p><p>additional ashmodes, rather than</p><p>needing to use themenu system to</p><p>do this.Withmostmodels, a</p><p>separate ashmode button on the</p><p>four-way control is used to do this.</p><p>4) AF illuminator lamp: In low</p><p>light, your camera can struggle to</p><p>focus. The AF lamp, housed in the</p><p>integral ash or on the front of the</p><p>camera body, res a ash burst or a</p><p>patterned beamof light to aid the</p><p>AF lock on the subject.</p><p>5)Lensreleasebutton:</p><p>Press this button to allow</p><p>the lens to be removed.</p><p>Did you know?Nikons</p><p>lenses are removed in the opposite</p><p>direction tomost other brands.</p><p>6) AF/M: This switch,</p><p>found on the lens or the</p><p>camera body, is used to</p><p>set the focusing to</p><p>manual or autofocus.</p><p>7)Self-timerlamp:Visually</p><p>indicates the self-timer countdown.</p><p>8) Microphone:Used to record</p><p>audio when shootingmovies. Can</p><p>also be used on some cameras to</p><p>write audio notes to images.</p><p>9) Depth-of-field</p><p>preview:Once popular</p><p>on lmSLRs, this is now</p><p>less common. Using it</p><p>closes the lens iris to the selected</p><p>aperture,...</p></li></ul>