GIS APPLICATIONS IN VITICULTURE. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLIMATIC SUITABILITY FOR GRAPE GROWING IN HU‍I WINE GROWING CENTRE (ROMANIA)

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    GIS APPLICATIONS IN VITICULTURE

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    Cercetri Agronomice n MoldovaVol. XLIV , No. 3 (147) / 2011

    GI SAPPLICATIONS IN VITICULTURE. THE SPATIAL

    DISTRIBUTION OF CLIMATIC SUITABILITY FOR

    GRAPE GROWING IN HUI WINE-GROWING CENTRE(ROMANIA)

    L. IRIMIA1*, C.V. PATRICHE2, H. QUENOL3

    *E-mail: liviuirimia2005@yahoo.fr

    Received February 11, 2011

    1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iai, Romania2Romanian Academy - Department of Iai, Geography Group, Romania3Laboratoire COSTEL, UMR6554 LETG, CNRS, Universit Rennes 2, France

    ABSTRACT. This paper is part of a GIS-

    based approach aiming to develop the map

    of ecological suitability for grape growing

    in Hui wine-growing centre, Hui vineyard

    (Romania). The database underlying this

    study includes ten climatic factors and

    indicators that are considered to be defining

    for the climatic suitability of a geographic

    area. They are: solar radiation

    (kcal/cm2/1.04-30.09), solar insolation

    (hours/1.04-30.09), annual average

    temperature (C), the hottest month average

    temperature (C), the sum of fractions of

    average daily temperatures above 10C for

    the period from 1st April to 30 September

    (tuC), average rainfall for the period from

    1stApril to 30 September (mm), the length

    of bioactive period (mm), the heliothermal

    index (IHr), the bioclimatic index (Ibcv) and

    the index of oenoclimatic aptitude (IAOe).

    The values of climatic factors were grouped

    in three suitability classes, according to their

    influence on the grapes quality for wine

    grapes varieties, and included in a GIS

    database that has been used to generate the

    climatic suitability map of the wine-growing

    centre. The GIS-based analysis shows that

    76.29% of Hui wine-growing centre area

    has climatic potential for white qualitative

    wines production, 16.95% for red table

    wines production and 2.03% for white table

    wines, sparkling wines and distillates. No

    part of Hui wine-growing centre has the

    climatic potential to produce red quality

    wines.

    Key words: Grapevine; Vineyard; GIS;Climatic suitability; Spatial distribution.

    REZUMAT. Aplicaiile GIS nviticultur. Distribuia spaial afavorabilitii climatice pentru culturaviei de vie n centrul viticol Hui.Lucrarea de fa este parte a unui studiuGIS, care are ca scop realizarea hriidistribuiei spaiale a favorabilitiiecologice pentru cultura viei de vie ncentrul viticol Hui, n funcie de

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    caracteristicile factorilor climatici, edafici iorografici. Fundamentul analizei climatice aarealului, ca i componenta studiului GIS,l reprezinto bazde date care include zecefactori i indicatori climatici cu caractersintetic, considerai definitorii pentru

    potenialul viticol al unei regiuni geografice,respectiv: radiaia solar (kcal/cm

    2/1.04-

    30.09), insolaia real (ore/1.04-30.09),temperatura medie anual(C), temperaturamedie a lunii iulie (C), bilanul termic util(tuC), precipitaiile din timpul perioadeide vegetaie (mm/1.04-30.09), lungimea

    perioadei bioactive a aerului (zile), indiceleheliotermic real (IHr), indicele bioclimaticviticol (Ibcv), indicele aptitudiniioenoclimatice (IAOe).Valorile factorilor iindicatorilor menionai au fost grupate ntrei clase de favorabilitate i incluse ntr-o

    baz de date GIS, cu ajutorul creia s-arealizat harta distribuiei spaiale afavorabilitii climatice pentru culturasoiurilor de vin. Din analiza GIS a arealuluirezult c 76.29% din suprafaa centruluiviticol Hui deine condiii favorabile pentru

    producerea vinurilor albe de calitate,

    16.95% pentru producerea vinurilor roii demas, iar 2.03% pentru producerea vinuriloralbe de mas, a vinurilor pentru distilate i avinurilor spumante. Conform rezultateloracestui studiu, nici unul dintre plaiurilecentrului viticol Hui nu ntrunetecondiiile climatice necesare produceriivinurilor roii de calitate.

    Cuvinte cheie: vide vie; podgorie; GIS;favorabilitate climatic; distribuie spaial.

    INTRODUCTION

    This paper is part of a widerresearch aiming to develop the map ofecological suitability for grapegrowing in Hui wine-growing centre,one of the oldest and most famous ofRomania. The analyzed area is located

    in the eastern part of the country, atthe southern limit of Central

    Moldavian Plateau (fig. 1). The studyis based on Geographic InformationSystems (GIS), tools of informational

    technologies currently widespread inthe viticulture research. The GIS-based approaches of vineyardsuitability use inputs including a largevariety of physical, cultural, andeconomic factors which determine thesuitability of environment for grape-growing (Vaudour and Shaw, 2005).The number and representativeness ofthe ecological factors used for suchevaluations are highly variable,depending on the main climatecharacteristics of the region were theassessed area is situated and theresearchers approach (Scienza andFalcetti, 1991; Watkins, 1997; Boyer,1998; Jones, 2004; Pythoud , 2006;

    Fulton et al.,2010).Our GIS evaluation is designed

    to assess the vineyard suitability intemperate continental climate areas.Applied strictly to vineyard areas itallows to find and delimit the mostfavourable micro-zones for winevarieties, generically known asterroir. The database underlying thisstudy includes fifteen climatic,pedological and topographic factorsthat in traditional European viticulture

    are considered to be defining for theecological suitability of a geographicarea. The values of these ecologicalfactors were assessed according totheir influence on grapes quality forwine varieties, the least suitableshowing the possibility to producewhite table wines and the most

    suitable red qualitative wines (Irimia

    and Rotaru, 2009).

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    Figure 1 -Geographical location of Hui wine-growing centre, with its fourth distinctterrain units (SD1, SD2, SD3, SD4) and the included lands

    The first approach of this GIS-

    based research aimed to assess the

    ecological suitability for grape

    growing of topographic factors in

    Hui wine-growing center (Irimia,

    Patriche, 2011). The current one deals

    with the suitability of the climatic

    factors for the same area, while the

    next study will focus on the suitabilityof the pedological factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    The identification and delimitation

    of Husi wine-growing center was based

    on satellite images integrated in Google

    Earth. In a previous analysis (Irimia,

    Patriche, 2011) in Husi wine-growing

    centre area were identified four terrainunits with very distinctive ecological

    characteristics: SD1 area, which includes

    Rusca, Schit and Ochi lands; SD2 area

    with Dobrina, Lohan and Corni lands;

    SD3 area with Dric land; SD4 area that

    includes Recea and Galbena lands (Fig.

    1).

    The digital elevation model(DEM),

    underlying the modeling of climatevariables, was developed at a 30 m

    resolution based on contour and altituderates extracted from topographic maps atscale 1:25.000(Condorachi, 2006).

    The real global radiation was

    computed in two stages (Patriche, 2007):first, the potential (clear-skies) global

    radiation was derived on the basis of

    DEM using the Incoming Solar Radiation

    module from SAGA-GIS 2.0.4 software

    (Olaya, 2004), then the potential radiation

    was multiplied the potential radiation with

    the factor (1 0.65xN2), where N is the

    cloud cover fraction (Entekhabi, 1997).

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    The potential (astronomical) solar

    insolation was derived by using the same

    SAGA-GIS module. This DEM-based

    computation has the advantage of takinginto account the terrain configuration.

    Consequently, we shall encounter highersunshine values on hilltops, because of

    the larger horizon, and lower values along

    valley bottoms, because of the narrowerview of the sky. By multiplying the

    potential sunshine duration values with

    the insolation fraction, we obtained the

    spatial distribution of the real solar

    insolation.

    For temperature variables, we used

    the average annual and monthly

    altitudinal temperature gradients,

    computed from the available

    meteorological station data from eastern

    Romania, implemented in NewLocClim

    software (FAO/SDRN).

    The climatic suitability was assessed

    by using the average annual values of 10climatic factors and ecological indicators

    considered as defining for the ecologicalsuitability for grape growing of ageographic area (Irimia and Rotaru, 2009):

    solar radiation, solar insolation, annual

    average temperature, the hottest monthaverage temperature, the sum of fractions

    of average daily temperatures above 10C

    for the period from 1st April to 30

    September (tuC), average rainfall for

    the period from 1stApril to 30 September,

    the length of bioactive period, theheliothermal index (IHr), the bioclimatic

    index (Ibcv) and the index of