Glazing Technical ... 3M ™ VHB ™ Structural Glazing Tape Technical Guide. ... compared to control panels glazed with structural

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  • 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape


  • Table of Contents

    Introduction 3Technical Service.... 3

    Product Portfolio.... 33M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes..... 3Adhesion Promoters........ 4Abrasion Materials.......... 4Cleaning Materials.......... 4

    Introduction and Background.. 5European Technical Approval (ETA) and CE Mark... 53M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Properties and Performance.. 5Composition........ 6Durability........ 6-7Moisture and Solvent Resistance........ 7Structural Performance Tests........... 7-8

    Structural Glazing with 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape.. 9Introduction..... 9Structural Joint Design 9Design Considerations - Adhesion.. 9Design Considerations - Tape Width (Dynamic Loads).. 10-12Design Considerations - Tape Width (Static Loads)... 13Design Considerations - Differential Movement 13-14Materials Involved in Glazing - Glass......... 14Materials Involved in Glazing - Metal Frames....... 14Project Review andWarranty Process......... 15-16Additional Testing Requirements 16

    Application Procedure for 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape.. 16Factory Glazing... 16Site Glazing.... 16Application Techniques.. 16The Work Environment.. 16-17The Work Surface ........... 17Surface Preparation..... 17Surface Preparation of Glass... 18Surface Preparation of Metal Frames................... 19-203M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Application............ 20-23Weather Sealant Application........ 24Bond Build Rate...... 25Storage, Shipping, Handling and Installation of Glazed Units......... 25-26

    Sloped Glazing. 26

    Protective Glazing... 26

    Glass Replacement and Remedial Glazing....... 26-27

    Equipment Suppliers................................................ 28

    Quality Assurance andWarranty Documentation....... 28

    Support Literature.................................................... 293M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Project Checklist.... 313M VHB Structural Glazing Tape ApplicationWarranty Request Form........ 33

    Global 3M Contact Information for3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape..35


    3M VHB

    StructuralGlazingTapeTECHNICAL GUIDE

  • IntroductionThis technical guide is intended to give guidance on theproper fabrication methods used in the assembly of a 3M

    VHB Tape structurally glazed curtain wall or commercialwindow system. Due to the variability of design andperformance requirements associated with differentapplications, this guide should be considered as a referencedocument only and should not be considered as acomprehensive process guide or quality assurance programfor all applications. Therefore, it is recommended that thecustomer contact a 3M Sales, Marketing or TechnicalService Representative when considering the use of 3M

    VHB Structural Glazing Tape for a structural glazingapplication. Fabricators and installers also have a responsiblyto follow industry accepted practices in the fabrication,handling/storage and installation of unitized curtain wallsor commercial window units.

    Technical ServiceAll 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape projects requirea thorough application assessment by a 3M TechnicalService Representative prior to the initiation of each project.3M requires the customer to work with a 3M SalesRepresentative and a Technical Service Representative toinitiate a 3M VHB Tape structural glazing application.Each project must be reviewed and approved by 3M beforethe 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape can be used on aproject. Use the appropriate regional telephone number listedon page 31 to initiate the 3M VHB Structural GlazingTape process. Be sure to ask for 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape Sales, Technical or Marketing support.


    Product Portfolio

    3M VHB Structural Glazing TapeG23F and B23F3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape is a closed cell,double-sided acrylic foam tape that has the capability todevelop very high bond strength and excellent long termholding power when bonded to glass and metal framework.It was developed to replace structural silicone sealants instructurally glazed curtain wall systems and commercialwindow units.

    Construction:Adhesive: High Performance AcrylicAdhesive Carrier: Conformable Acrylic Closed Cell FoamThickness: 2.3 mm (0.090 in)Density: 720 kg/m3 (45 lb/ft3)Tape Color: Gray (G23F) or Black (B23F)Liner: 0.125 mm (0.005 in) Red Polyethylene Film

    Performance Properties: The following technicalinformation and data should be considered representative ortypical only and should not be used for specification purposes.

    1. Peel Adhesion: 440 N/100 mm (25 lb/in width)(stainless steel, ASTM D 3330)

    2. Normal Tensile: 480 kPa (70 lb/in)(aluminum T-block, ASTM D 897)

    3. Dynamic Overlap Shear: 450 kPa (65 lb/in)(stainless steel, ASTM D 1002)

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape 4972(Brazil)3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape 4972 is used exclusively inBrazil and other parts of South America for structural glazing.This product is very similar to the 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape G23F with the primary difference being thicknessof the acrylic foam tape. This tape has been successfully usedfor structural glazing applications in South America since 1990which demonstrates the performance and long term durability of3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape for this application.


    Adhesive: High Performance AcrylicAdhesive Carrier: Conformable Acrylic Closed Cell FoamThickness: 2.0 mm (0.080 in)Density: 720 kg/m3 (45 lb/ft3)Tape Color: GrayLiner: Green polyethylene film

    Performance Properties: Typical results are comparableto 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23F. This technicalinformation and data should be considered representativeor typical only and should not be used for specificationpurposes.

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape Technical Guide

  • Adhesion Promoters Glass Adhesion Promoters:3M Silane Glass Treatment AP1153M Silane Primer (Europe)Silane coupling agents are required when bonding 3M VHB

    Structural Glazing Tape to an uncoated glass surface. Glass isknown to be a hydrophilic (water loving) surface and thischaracteristic makes the acrylic adhesive bond susceptible tochange under high humidity conditions or when exposed tomoisture. Simple surface treatment with a silane coupling agentdiluted in a mixture of alcohol and water can help to reduce thewater loving nature of the glass and enhance the tape bond inhigh moisture environments. 3M has tested silane couplingagents and has found 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane resin(Dow Corning Z-6040 Silane) to provide the best performancefor this application. This silane coupling agent is availablepremixed and ready to use in various quantities from 3M.

    Adhesion Promoters forGlazing Profiles:3M Primer 943M Primer 94 is a one-part solvent based primer. It can be usedto promote adhesion of 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape tometal frames especially when the frame has been overcoatedwith paint. This primer may also be required on glass when areflective or opacifying coating is present on the interior side ofa glass panel. A 3M Technical Service Representative will helpyou determine if a primer is needed to achieve high bondstrength of the tape to a metal frame or reflective coated glass.

    3MAdhesion Promoter 1113M Adhesion Promoter 111 (AP 111) is an isopropylalcohol based solution used to promote adhesion of 3M VHB

    Structural Glazing Tapes to metal frames especially when theframe has been overcoated with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)based paints. A 3M Technical Service Representative will helpyou determine if an adhesion promoter is needed to achieve highbond strength of the tape to a metal frame.

    3M Primer 42973M Primer 4297 is an adhesion promoter that wasdeveloped to improve adhesion on a variety of plastic surfaces.It is very effective on unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (U-PVC)glazing profiles.

    Abrasion Pads Scotch-Brite General PurposeHand Pad 7447These abrasive pads may be used to lightly abrade the metalframe bonding surface to increase bond strength of the tapeto the metal frame. They can be used by hand or attached to apowered palm sander. Scotch-Brite abrasives are also availablein wheel form allowing for efficient surface preparation of linealprofiles. Testing by a 3M Technical Service Representative willdetermine if abrasion is required to achieve a high bondstrength on a specific metal frame finish.

    Cleaning Materials A mixture of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water is generallyrecommended as a cleaning solution for glass and glazingprofiles. A blend of 50:50 or up to 90:10 IPA and water is mostcommon. These solutions may be available from 3M or purchasedseparately from a distributor. Alternative cleaning solutions maybe utilized depending on project specific requirements. Twoalternative cleaning solutions are listed below.

    3MAdhesive Remover (Citrus Base)This product can be effectively used to clean greasy or oilymetals as well as adhesive residue. It is also effective inremoving silicone contamination from glass surfaces. Cleaningwith this product should always be followed by cleaning with anisopropyl alcohol and water mixture prior to tape bonding.

    3M General Purpose AdhesiveCleaner 08984Specially blended solvent provides easy cleanup of most typesof adhesives, greases and oils, overspray, silicone, and waxes.


    Glass Adhesion Promoter

    AP115 Silane Glass Treatment 118 ml (4 oz) spray bottle3.8 L (1 gallon) bottle

    Silane Silane Glass Treatment 1 L (0.26 gallon) bottlePrimer

    Glazing Profile Adhesion Promoters0.66 ml (0.02 oz) singleuse ampule237 ml (1/2 pint) can

    Primer 94 Solvent based primer 0.95 L (1 quart) can3.8 L (1 gallon) can18.9 L (5 gallon) can196.8 L (52 gallon) drum

    AP111 Alcohol based adhesion promoter 250 ml (8.45 oz) bottle3.8 L (1 gallon) can

    Primer 4297 Solvent based primer 1 L (0.26 gallon) bottle

  • Introduction and Background

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape is a high performancebonding material used to attach glass to structural glazingframes replacing dry-glazed (gasket, mechanical fasteners,pressure plate, etc.) or wet-glazed (structural siliconesealants) systems. 3M VHB Acrylic Foam Tapes havebeen demonstrated to be very capable bonding products since1980, providing an often ideal combination of performance,durability, and ease of use. They have been successfully used ina wide variety of demanding industrial applications in areassuch as commercial building construction and transportationmarkets. More specifically, they have been used in thousandsof international applications as the primary bonding componentfor structural glazing of glass curtain walls and commercialwindows since 1990. These real-world applications along withindependent, third party test results demonstrate the capabilityof 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape for this application.

    Conventional wet-glazing methods of bonding the structuralglazing glass panels to a metal frame employ either one-partor two-part structural silicone sealants. In these systems, adouble-sided open cell foam tape (spacer tape) is typically usedto give temporary holding of the glass and for creating thenecessary open space (face clearance) for the structural sealant.The dimension of the spacer tape is determined based on thedesired sealant bite and bead thickness. The bond should notbe disturbed during the curing of silicone sealant, and it maytake days to weeks to achieve handling strength and full cure.

    3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape is an alternative bondingmethod that can provide the performance needed for theapplication, yet with significant benefits. 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape replaces both spacer tape and structural sealantand there is no curing reaction involved in bond strengthdevelopment.

    Potential benefits include:

    European Technical Approval (ETA)and CE Mark3M VHB Structural Glazing Tapes G23F and B23Fhave been granted a European Technical Approval (ETA)through independent testing according to the currentEuropean Technical Approval Guideline (ETAG 002) forstructural glazing. 3M VHB Structural Glazing Tape G23Fand B23F have also earned the CE mark. This attests thatproduct characteristics fulfill all the prescribed details in thetechnical specification "European Technical Approval ETAG09-0024 valid from 20 February 2009 to 20 February 2014."

    3M VHB Structural Glazing TapeProperties and PerformanceStructural glazing requires joining systems that meet thehighest requirements for adhesive and cohesive strength,weathering resistance and durability. In addition to theperformance, the long-term durability of 3M VHB StructuralGlazing Tape is also critical for these applications. The typicalphysical properties and performance characteristics such asnormal tensile strength, dynamic and static shear strength etc.are well known resulting in the establishment of simple, useful,and conservative design guidelines for tape performance that isused in design calculations. These design criteria providesufficient performance for this application while incorporatingsafety factors typical of the industry.


    No color mismatch between structural silicone andspacer tape/gasket, no streaking or voids

    Clean look from interior side of glass; less spacebetween glass and frame

    Consistent thickness and width improved quality control


    Proven technology history in construction applicationssince early 1980s

    In process non-destructive testing ability to test alltaped panels without deglazing

    No curing in customer facility less variability and risk


    Immediate handling strength no cure time, fasterthrough-put and delivery

    Simplified process no mixing or curing of liquidadhesives in customer facility, no tooling of structuralsealant reduced process variables/less risk

    Less than 5% waste more accurate forecasting ofmaterials and reduced overall costs compared tostructural silicone process

    Reduced labor costs no silicone testing, fewerprocess steps, no major 2-part equipment maintenance


  • Composition3M has been a technological leader in acrylate pressuresensitive adhesive (PSA) technology since the early 1960s.3M Acrylic Foam Tapes and 3MAdhesive Transfer Tapesrepresent examples of 3Ms proprietary state-of-the-art durablechemistry with long-term aging resistant polymer. Thechemical bonds that make up the polymer chains consist ofcarbon-carbon single bonds that are highly resistant to energyin the form of heat or ultraviolet light, as well as chemicalattack. In less durable foams or adhesives, such conditionscould lead to cleaving of the polymer backbone and thus aweakening of mechanical properties. In the case of acrylicadhesives and foams, however, additional crosslinking ischemically favored over chain scission (cleavage). Ratherthan undergoing a process of decomposition, the acrylatematerials tend to build modulus very slightly over extendedexposures. This translates to a stronger, long lasting bond.

    DurabilityThe ability of acrylic adhesives to withstand cold and hottemperatures, UV light exposure, humidity, and otherenvironmental conditions has been documented through bothreal-life and accelerated aging studies. Accelerated aging testsare conducted by subjectin...


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