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Global Biodiversity patterns · PDF file global biodiversity maps „Die Verbreitung der Gewächse“ (1838) Based on Alexander von Humboldt‘s „Statistik der vornehmsten Pflanzenfamilien

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  • Global Biodiversity patterns: Implications for nature conservation

    at regional to global scales

    Jens Mutke 1st International BION-Conference: Biodiversity Today for Tomorrow

    Wednesday, September 17th 2014

    http://www.nees.uni-bonn.de/staff/pages/jens-mutke

  • Detailed analyses for most vertebrates

    available since 2004

    Complete species level datasets at

    iucnredlist.org

    Species level data only for subgroups & regions

    global: only species numbers

    Detailed plant diversity maps since 1996

  • Detailed analyses for most vertebrates

    available since 2004

    26,000 sp.

    of vertebrates

    ≤1% of all animals?

    Detailed plant diversity maps since 1996

    320,000 sp. 90% of land plants

    … and the other 10%:

  • A short history of

    global biodiversity maps „Die Verbreitung der Gewächse“ (1838)

    Based on Alexander von Humboldt‘s

    „Statistik der vornehmsten Pflanzenfamilien und Pflanzengruppen“

    [Dr. Heinrich Berghaus Physikalischer Atlas]

    Tropical America 3880 spp. (c. 3.5%)

    North America 2890 spp. (c.15%)

    Central Europe 3413 spp. (almost 100% of the flora)

    New Zealand 380 spp. (c. 16%)

    Tropical Africa 573 spp. (c. 1.5%)

  • Barthlott et al. 2005

    Mutke & Barthlott 2005 Kier et al. 2005

    Wulff 1935

    A short history of

    global biodiversity maps

    Humboldt 1838 Malyshev 1975 Barthlott et al. 1996, 1999

    Mutke et al. 2001

    Sommer et al. 2010

    Kreft & Jetz 2007

    Kreft et al. 2008 Island Diversity

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672852_Global_centers_of_vascular_plant_diversity http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672861_Patterns_of_vascular_plant_diversity_at_continental_to_global_scales http://www.researchgate.net/publication/230814249_Global_patterns_of_plant_diversity_and_floristic_knowledge http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672863_Patterns_of_African_vascular_plant_diversity__a_GIS_based_analysis http://www.researchgate.net/publication/42541409_Projected_impacts_of_climate_change_on_regional_capacities_for_global_plant_species_richness http://www.researchgate.net/publication/5811867_Global_diversity_of_island_floras_from_a_macroecological_perspective

  • 2009

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/26242092_A_global_assessment_of_endemism_and_species_richness_across_island_and_mainland_regions

  • Mesoamerica

    E-Brazil

    Carribean

    SW-Australia

    Costa Rica-Chocó Guayana

    Capensis

    China-

    Indochina

    Caucasus

    Papua

    Indomalayan

    Himalaya

    W-Ghats

    Madagascar

    E-Africa

    Mediterranean

    NE-Australia

    Cameroon- Guinea

    Maputaland-

    Pondoland

    Andes-

    Amazonia

    Barthlott, Kier, Kreft, Küper, Rafiqpoor & Mutke 2005, 2007

    Biodiversity:

    Centers of Plant Species Richness

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672852_Global_centers_of_vascular_plant_diversity http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672847_Geographic_patterns_of_vascular_plant_diversity_at_continental_to_global_scales

  • Protected Areas and Human Population in

    the Centers of Plant Species Richness

    Capensis

    Indo-Malaya

    Mesoamerica

    Costa Rica-Chocó

    Andes-

    Amazonia

    E-Brazil

    Maputaland-

    Pondoland

    Madagascar

    Cameroon-

    Guinea

    Albertine

    Rift

    SW-Australia

    Papua

    W-Ghats

    Caucasus

    Mediterranean Himalaya

    Indochina-China

    Guayana

    Caribbean

    NE-Australia

    Centre in Area

    (x1000 km 2 )

    Human Population

    2014

    Human Population

    1990 population growth

    Percent

    protected 2014

    Percent protected

    1990

    1 Africa 463

    39.95 Mio

    27.7 Mio 12.3 Mio / 44% 16.0% 5.7%

    2 Americas 4,970

    251.7 Mio

    185.9 Mio 65.9 Mio / 35% 32.4% 11.2%

    3 S & E Asia 4,450

    698.8 Mio

    542.8 Mio 155.9 Mio / 29% 13.6% 4.6%

    4 W Eurasia 48

    21.2 Mio

    19.2 Mio 2 Mio / 11% 20.2% 9.3%

    5 Australia 266

    0.3 Mio

    0.2 Mio 0.1 Mio / 44% 32.7% 11.7%

    total 10,193 1,011.9 Mio 775.7 Mio 236.2 Mio / 30% 23.2% 8.0% % of world’s total

    5.2%

    13.9%

    12.9% 18.2%

    [updaten from Barthlott et al. 2005 &

    Mutke et al. 2011]

    All 20 global centres of plant diversity > 3,000 spp. / 10,000 km²

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672852_Global_centers_of_vascular_plant_diversity http://www.researchgate.net/publication/216188848_Vascular_plant_diversity_in_a_changing_world_global_centres_and_biome-specific_patterns

  • Liverworth c. 6,500 sp.

    Mosses c. 15,000 sp. Hornworth

    Lycopods

    Ferns

    Seed plants

    Vascular Plants

    Land Plants

    Flowering Plants

    c. 320,000 sp.

    Gymnosperms c. 1,000 sp.

    Global diversity patterns of all major

    groups of land plants available

    von Konrat et al 2008 Mutke & Geffert 2010,

    Geffert et al. 2013

    Kreft et al 2010

    Mutke & Barthlott 2005, Barthlott et al. 2007

    c. 13,000 sp.

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/250199526_Chapter_Nine_Early_Land_Plants_Today_Liverwort_Species_Diversity_and_the_Relationship_with_Higher_Taxonomy_and_Higher_Plants http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672862_Keep_on_working_the_uneven_documentation_of_regional_moss_floras http://www.researchgate.net/publication/235945458_Global_moss_diversity_spatial_and_taxonomic_patterns_of_species_richness http://www.researchgate.net/publication/230814229_Contrasting_environmental_and_regional_effects_on_global_pteridophyte_and_seed_plant_diversity http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672861_Patterns_of_vascular_plant_diversity_at_continental_to_global_scales http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672847_Geographic_patterns_of_vascular_plant_diversity_at_continental_to_global_scales

  • Global Priority Setting for

    Gymnosperm Conservation

    • Species level data for all c. 1000 species

    (conifers, cycads, etc)

    • Largest conifer forests: Boreal region –

    Highest diversity: Tropics and Subtropics

    • Dataset currently in the process of

    revision and update in collaboration with

    colleagues in Denmark

    Mutke & Barthlott 2005, Barthlott et al. 2007

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672861_Patterns_of_vascular_plant_diversity_at_continental_to_global_scales http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672847_Geographic_patterns_of_vascular_plant_diversity_at_continental_to_global_scales

  • • Student Lab Courses at University Bonn: GIS, Biogeography, Conservation Planing in

    BSc Biology, MSc Plant Science, MSc

    Organismic Biology (OEP)

    • International Summer Schools (e.g. in BIOTA Africa Network, iCUBE)

    • PhD Students from Burkina Faso, Colombia, Iran, …

    Teaching and capacity building

  • Another (new) information source at the global scale

    Published by Kew Botanic Gardens, UK since the late 1990ies,

    currently includes 173 of c. 450 Seed Plant families and

    c. 106,000 out of an estimated 350,000 species

    Distribution mostly on country level (“TDWG level 3”)

    We cross-checked with our data: for most regions between 9-30% of the genera covered, but

    some taxonomic (and ecological) bias:

    e.g., +/- all plants with bulbs are included, but only a minor fraction of tropical tree families.

    Bulbs: 100% covered:True pattern! Trees: True pattern???

    Brazilian Amazon:

    1317 of c. 15,000

    tree species covered

  • Examples for regional Analyses

    Biogeography and Biodiversity of Cacti Conservation Biogeography of the

    Carnivorous Plant Genus

    Nepenthes

    Biogeography of Neotropical Forests Latitudinal and Altitudinal Diversity Patterns of

    selected Andean Plant Genera

    Baltes, Mutke, Rembold & Barthlott, in prep.

    Mutke 2001 & in prep.

    Barthlott et al. 2015

    in Schumannia 7

    Mutke, Weigend et al. 2014Frontiers in Genetics 5

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/215672830_Forest_structure_and_tree_species_composition_of_the_submontane_rainforest_at_Ro_Guajalito http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270476747_Biogeography_and_Biodiversity_of_Cacti http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270476747_Biogeography_and_Biodiversity_of_Cacti http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270476747_Biogeography_and_Biodiversity_of_Cacti http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fgene.2014.00351/abstract

  • Biogeographic patterns of Cactus distribution

    (Barthlott et al. 2015. Biogeography and

    Biodiversity of Cacti. – Schumannia 7)

    c.50% of the species

  • Countries

    Gap species

    Protected Areas (Cat I to IV)

    Protected Areas (all)

    Conservation Assessm