GLYCOLYSIS AND OTHER PATHWAYS EMP PATHWAY— ANOTHER NAME FOR GLYCOLYSIS

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  • GLYCOLYSIS AND OTHER PATHWAYSEMP PATHWAY ANOTHER NAME FOR GLYCOLYSIS

  • GLYCOLYSISA UNIVERSAL PATHWAYYIELDS 2ATPS [NET]THROUGH SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATIONOCCURS IN CYTOSOLANAEROBICGLUCOSE + ATP IN THE PRESCENCE OF GLUCOKINASE=GLUCOSE-6 PHOSPHATEFRUCTOSE-6 PHOSPHATE +ATP=FRUCTOSE 1,6 DIPHOSPATE2 PGAL- - ->2 PEP-2 PYRUVIC ACID MOLECULES

  • FATE OF PYRUVIC ACIDUNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS IT IS FERMENTED IN HUMANS IT BECOMES LACTIC ACIDIN YEAST IT BECOMES ETOH + CO2

  • TRANSITION REACTIONAN AEROBIC REACTIONCO ENZYME A [CO A] PUTS ONE CARBON ON TO O2 TO FORM CO2, PICKS UP 2 CARBONS FROM PYRUVIC ACID AND BECOMES ACETYL-CO ENZYME A [ACETYL CO A] WHICH CARRIES THE CARBONS WITH THE H AND ELECTRONS ATTACHED INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA INTO THE KREBS CYCLE

  • NAD NADNICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDEA COENZYME-A CARRIER COMPOUND WHICH PICKS UP H+ AND ELECTRONS AND CARRIES THEM INTO THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM WHERE 3 ATP MOLECULES WILL BE FORMEDNIACIN a B VITAMIN THAT IS NECESSARY FOR NAD TO FUNCTION and FORM

  • FADFADFLAVINE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE A COENZYME A CARRIER COMPOUND WHICH CARRIES H+ AND ELECTRONS INTO THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM YIELDING 2 ATP MOLECULESRIBOFLAVIN-A B VITAMIN WHICH MUST BE PRESENT FOR FAD TO FUNCTION and FORM

  • KREBS CYCLEAN AEROBIC REACTIONTRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE AND CITRIC ACID CYCLE [OTHER NAMES]OCCURS IN THE MATRIX OF THE MITOCHONDRION3 IMPORTANT COMPOUNDSCITRIC ACID [6 C]ALPHA-KETOGLUTARIC ACID [5 C]OXALOACETIC ACID [4 C]

  • KREBS CYCLE CONTINUEDFOR EACH TURN OF THE CYCLE THERE ARE 3 NADHs FORMED 1 FADH2 FORMED2 CO2 FORMED1 ATPHEAT

  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM AN AEROBIC REACTIONCYTACHROME SYSTEMRESPIRATORY CHAINCOMPOSED OF A SERIES OF OXIDATION- REDUCTION REACTIONS [ReDox]FINAL PHASE OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION IN WHICH NADH AND FADH2 ARE OXIDIZED WITH THEIR ELECTRONS BEING PASSED ALONG THE CHAIN

  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM CONTINUEDIF NADH BRINGS THE ELECTRONS AND HYDROGENS INTO THE SYSTEM THEN 3 ATP MOLECULES WILL BE MADE USING THE ATP-SYNTHASE MOLECULE [CF 1 OR F1 PARTICLE]WHEN FADH2 BRINGS THE H+ AND ELECTRONS THEN ONLY 2 ATP MOLECULES ARE MADETHE LAST 2 COMPOUNDS, CYTACHROME A AND CYTOACHROME A3 ACT AS THE ENZYME CYTACHROME OXIDASETHEY PLACE ELECTRONS AND 2 HYDROGENS ON TO OXYGEN TO FORM THE WASTE PRODUCT WATER

  • WASTE PRODUCTS ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEMWATER [H2O]KREBS CYCLE OR CITRIC ACID CYCLE OR TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLECARBON DIOXIDE [CO2]

  • FATTY ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS ENTERING THE KREBS CYCLEFATTY ACIDS DISSOLVE THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANEUNDERGO BETAOXIDATIONFORM INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS WHICH CAN LEAVE THE CELL AND LOWER THE pHKeto acids =Acetone, acetoacetic acid, betahydroxybutyric acidAMINO ACIDSENTER BY PINOCYTOSISARE DEAMINATEDNH2 REMOVED AND CHANGED TO UREAFORM THE SAME INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS AS FATTY ACIDS DOBOTH FATTY ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS CAN ENTER THE KREBS CYCLE THROUGH ACETYL CO A

  • SUMMARY 1GLYCOLYSIS-OCCURS IN CYTOPLASMTRANSITION REACTION-STARTS IN CYTOPLASM ENDS IN THE MITOCHONDRIONKREBS CYCLE OCCURS IN THE MATRIX OF THE MITOCHONDRIONELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM OCCURS ON THE CRISTAE OF THE MITOCHONDRION

  • SUMMARY 2GLYCOLYSIS 2 ATPS NO OXYGEN USEDTRANSITION REACTION [T R]IF OXYGEN USED 2 CARBONS GO INTO THE KREBS CYCLE

    T R CONTINUEDAND NAD OR FAD CARRY Electrons AND HYDROGEN INTO THE ETSIF NO OXYGEN USED FERMENTATION OCCURS

  • SUMMARY 3KREBS CYCLE [CITRIC ACID CYCLE]A 2-CARBON CPD IS ATTACHED TO A 4-CARBON CPD TO FORM CITRIC ACID3 TURNS TO MAKE 1 PGAL [A 3-CARBON CPD]OXYGEN IS USEDATP IS MADECO2 IS A WASTE PRODUCT

  • SUMMARY 4ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM [OCCURS ON THE CRISTAE]A SERIES OF OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS [GIVING UP ELECTRONS AND TAKING ON ELECTRONS.]IF NAD CARRIES THE ELECTRONS THEN 3 ATPS ARE MADEIF FAD CARRIES THE ELECTRONS ONLY 2 ATPS ARE MADETHE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IS OXYGEN WHICH THEN COMBINES WITH 2 HYDROGENS TO MAKE WATER [H2O]