Text of Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Part 1: Glycolysis Chapter 14
Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Part 1: Glycolysis Chapter 14
Glycolysis Chemistry of each glycolytic reaction: Forwards and Backwards. The general thermodynamics of each reaction. Other sugars entry to glycolysis. What to do with Pyruvate? Key topics: Things to Know
Central Importance of Glucose Glucose is an excellent fuel Yields good amount of energy upon oxidation Can be efficiently stored in the polymeric form Many organisms and tissues can meet their energy needs on glucose only Glucose is a versatile biochemical precursor Bacteria can use glucose to build the carbon skeletons of: All the amino acids Membrane lipids Nucleotides in DNA and RNA Cofactors needed for the metabolism
Discoverers of Glycolysis (EMP Pathway) Jacob Parnas 1884-1948
Showed that the sugar intermediates were Phosphorylated
Glycolysis Overall 1 Glucose 2 Pyruvates + 2ATP + 2 NADH 10 Reactions: Know them Backwards and Forwards!!!! Where is this going on in a cell? EOC Problems 1+2 can be worked from this Figure and Lactate Dehydrogenase Rxn (slide 35)
Another View of Glycolysis What is This?? from KEGG Pathways Linked to Glycolysis, Enzymes by EC numbers
Human enzymes in green
Keep Track of those Carbons! EOC Problem 9..checks out the carbons from triose- phoshpates! Think about the aldolase G.
3-P-Gyld DH EOC Problem 14 is about arsenic poisoning and what happens when arsenate is involved with this reaction.
Enolase is a Dehydrase
A Fun Homework Problem Add up all the G o s and see how: 1.Aldolases endergonic G is over come. 2.Total for Glycolysiswhat enzymes are doing the work? But, is that allwhat about REALITY? EOC Problem 10: A look at modifying Glycolysis, could it work?
The Real G
Showed cancer cells had high rate of glycolysis, first to crystalize most glycolytic enzymes. Devised the first reliable, quantitative O 2 uptake apparatus, lovingly called a Warburg!..but replaced by oxygen electrodes. Nobel Prize, 1931 and trained 6 future Nobel Laureates!! One of which is Hans Krebs who worked out the Citric Acid Cycle.
Medical Aspect: CANCER Most tumors: Glycolysis goes 10X faster than normal cells. And is mainly fermentative (producing lactic acid). The strategy is to: 1. Use this in Detection 2. To slow glycolysis down in cancer cells.
Hypoxia Induced Transcription Factor
Use of 6-Phospho-FdG in Positron Emission Tomography, it accumulates in regions of high glycolytic activity See next slide
CT and PET Scans Patient with malignant melanoma ingested 6- Phospho-FdG Left-CT scan shows location of bone, soft tissue Center-PET scan showing high glucose use. Natural areas of high glucose use: brain but not bladder Cancer has spread to liver, muscle Right false color composite
Type 1 Diabetes and Glycolysis
Entry of other Sugars
Entry of other Sugars
Conversion of Pyruvate to Something Else
Why Lactate DH? Consider the Outputs of Catabolism and Needs of Anabolism ! Lactate DH
Alligators do not have a great Cori Cycle
Alcohol Fermentation EOC Problem 4: Calculating the K eq of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (use Table 13-7) EOC Problem 6: follow the carbons from glucose into ethanol.
Entry of Glycerol into Glycolysis
Energetics of Glycerol as An Energy Source Glycerol kinase- ATP Glycerol-3-P DH+ NADH 3-P-Gyld DH+ NADH 3-PGA Kinase+ ATP Pyr Kinase+ ATP Total=1 ATP + 2 NADH Can GLYCEROL be FERMENTED? Explain
Commercial Ethanol Fermentation EOC Problem 7all about the heat released from fermentationwhats going on?
Things to Know and Do Before Class 1.Each glycolytic reaction: substrates/products, enzyme name, Gs. 2.Keep track of the carbon numbers from glucose to pyruvate. 3.Overall glycolytic G. 4.Getting other sugars and glycerol into glycolysis. 5.EOC Problems: 1, 2, 4-7, 9, 10, 14.