Gottfried W. Leibniz(1646-1716)- MA Phil 1663 and BA Law, Leipzig 1665- 1669-1674 secretary to the Elector of Mainz- 1672-74 visits Paris (Huygens)- 1675 counsellor to to the Duke of Brunswick in Hanover- private tutor of Caroline of Anspach, the future Princess of Wales and wife of George IIDiscourse on Metaphysics 1686New System of Nature 1695Monadology 1714Theodicy 1710New Essays on Human Understanding (comp. 1695-1705, publ. 1765)
Samuel Clarke(1675-1729)- BA Cambridge- Boyle lectures (1704-05)A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God A Discourse concerning natural religion- 1706 translation of Newtons Opticks into Latin- 1709 Rector of St. Jamess Church in Westminster (Newtons parish)- 1714 coronation of George I of Hanover (Clarke was personal chaplain of Princess Caroline of Anspach, the future wife of George II)- 1715-16 exchange with Leibniz via Princess Carolineof Anspachfirst published in 1717
The Calculus disputeLeibniz comes to know of Newton in 1672; first exchange of letters in 1677.development of calculus 1677-1699Leibnizs account of Differential Calculus in 1684 and Integral Calculus 1686Newtons Principia 1687cordial exchange of letters between Newton and Leibniz on gravity and planetary motion still in 1692-93.1708 John Keill publishes in the Philosophical Transactions an accusation that Leibniz plagiarised Newtons calculus1710 Leibniz requested redress from the Royal Society (full member since 1673)the RS requested Keills account, and accepted it in 17111712 Leibniz appealed again, the RS formed a committee (chaired by Newton), which issued a report in 1713 (Commercium Epistolicum, written by Newton) that condemned Leibniz.Leibniz refutes the report in his Charta volans published in Dec 1713, showing that Newtons mastery of the calculus was patchy (showcasing an error in Principia Bk. 2, prop. 10 mistake pointed out to Leibniz anonymously by Johan Bernoulli)in spring 1716 Caroline tried to pacify Newton and Leibniz, but failed since 1709 Leibniz intensified his attacks on various aspects of Newtonian theory, in his publications and letters
The Calculus disputehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=axZTv5YJssA
A. R. Hall, Philosophers at War (1980)
Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence5 letters exchanged via princess Caroline, starting with Leibnizs attack on Newton, followed by Clarkes replyTOPICS:(i) theological and metaphysical- the relation of God to the world- Gods attributes - the nature of soul and its relation to body- free will- the Principle of Sufficient Reason- miracles(iii) physical/scientific- the nature of space and time- the nature of matter- gravity- motive force - the size of the universe
The Plan14 October: Newtons revolutionNewtons Revolution in Physics - dr. Ivica Smolic, Asistant Professor of Physics, Faculty of ScienceNewtons Impact on Philosophy - PG21 October: no classby 28 October (i) read the LCC(ii) make synoptic notes of the arguments(iii) choose a topic for 20min presentation as an introduction to discussion28 October: Space as the sensorium of God
The Plan4 November: Topic 111 November: Topic 218 November: Topic 325 November: Topic 42 December: Topic 59 December: Topic 616 December: Topic 723 December (?): Topic 813 January: Topic 920 January: Topic 1027 January: Topic 11
Obligations and Grading OBLIGATION %OF FINAL MARKattendance (max. 3 absences)synoptic notes of arguments in LCC10%20min presentation on topic of choice20%discussion in class20%short quiz (unannounced, after 4 Nov)10%written exam 40%10 short factual questions 5 expanded questions3 discussion questions (choice out of 10)
READINGS - OBLIGATORYR. Ariew (ed.), G. W. Leibniz and Samuel Clarke: Correspondence, Indianapolis-Cambridge, 2000.H. G. Alexander, Introduction, in The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence, Manchester, 1956, pp. ix-lviI. Newton, Philosophical Writings, ed. A. Janiak, Cambridge, 2004. [parts]Introduction, pp. ix-xxxiPrincipia, Scholium to Definitions, pp. 64-70.Principia, General Scholium, pp. 89-93.G. W. Leibniz, Philosophical Essays, ed. R. Ariew & D. Garber, Cambridge, 1989. [parts]Monadology, pp. 213-225.Letters on Newton, pp. 307-320.
READINGS - SUGGESTEDE. Vailati, Leibniz and Clarke. A Study of their Correspondence, Oxford, 1997.L. A. Burtt, The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science, London, 1924.Chapter VII: The Metaphysics of Newton, pp. 207-302.G. W. Leibniz, Philosophical Essays, ed. R. Ariew & D. Garber, Cambridge, 1989.Discourse on Metaphysics, pp. 35-69.New System of Nature, pp. 138-145.I. Kant, Critique of the Pure Reason, tr. N. Kemp Smith, London, 1929.Transcendental Aesthetic, pp. 63-91.
READINGS - OTHERS. Shapin, Of Gods and Kings: Natural Philosophy and Politics in the Leibniz-Clarke Disputes, Isis 72 (1981), 187-215. R. Laymon, Newton's Bucket Experiment, Journal of the History of Philosophy 16 (1978), 399-413.S. Clarke, A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God and Other Writings, ed. E. Vailati, Cambridge, 1998.R. T. W. Arthur, Space and Relativity in Newton and Leibniz, British Journal for the History of Science 45 (1994), 220-240.N. Jolly (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Leibniz, Cambridge, 1995.