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Grammar Lecture 8 Pronouns (2). Pronouns 1. Personal pronouns 2. Reflexive pronouns 3. Interrogative pronouns 4. Demonstrative pronouns 5. Possessive

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Text of Grammar Lecture 8 Pronouns (2). Pronouns 1. Personal pronouns 2. Reflexive pronouns 3. Interrogative...

  • Slide 1
  • Grammar Lecture 8 Pronouns (2)
  • Slide 2
  • Pronouns 1. Personal pronouns 2. Reflexive pronouns 3. Interrogative pronouns 4. Demonstrative pronouns 5. Possessive pronouns 6. Relative pronouns 7. Indefinite pronouns
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  • (1) Personal pronouns (continued): (a) object pronouns Object pronouns are used when a pronoun is either a direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition.
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  • Object pronouns In English: Most object pronouns are different from subject pronouns, but the same pronouns are used as direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of a preposition.
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  • Subject and object pronouns in English SubjectObject Singular 1 st personIme 2 nd personyou 3 rd personhe/she/ithim/her/it Plural 1 st personweus 2 nd person 3 rd person you they you them
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  • In French.. As in English, the pronouns used as objects are different from the ones used as subjects. Unlike English, the form of an object pronoun often changes depending on whether it is a direct object, or an object of a preposition.
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  • First and second persons singular and plural SubjectDirect objectSubjectDirect object Singular 1 st person 2 nd person je tu me te I you me you Plural 1 st person 2 nd person nous vous nous vous we you us you
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  • Identifying the function of nous and vous can be confusing: same forms are used as subject and object. both subject and object forms are placed before the verb.
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  • Third person singular and plural (him, her, it and them) SubjectDirect objectSubjectDirect object Singular masculine Feminine il elle le la he, it she, it him, it her, it Plural masculine feminine ils elleslestheythem
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  • French indirect object pronouns First, make sure that the French verb takes an indirect object.
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  • First and second persons singular and plural SubjectIndirect object SubjectIndirect object Singular 1 st person 2 nd person je tu me te I you (to) me (to) you Plural 1 st person 2 nd person nous vous nous vous we you (to) us (to) you
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  • Third person singular and plural (him, her, it and them) Direct objectIndirect object Direct objectIndirect object Singular masculine Feminine le la People Things lui y him, it her, it (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural masculine feminine lesleur y them(to) them
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  • There is only one form of the 3 rd person indirect object pronouns referring to things and ideas: y: (1) Are you answering the letter? Yes, I am answering it. (2) Do you obey the laws? Yes, I obey them.
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  • Translate He gives his sister the gift He gives her the gift
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  • Personal pronouns (continued) Disjunctive (Stressed) pronouns French stressed pronouns (also known as disjunctive pronouns) are used to emphasize a noun or pronoun that refers to a person. There are 9 forms in French
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  • Personal pronouns (continued) Disjunctive (Stressed) pronouns Subject Direct object Indirect object ReflexiveStressed jeme*me*me*moi tute*te*te*toi il,elle,on le, la luiselui,elle,soi nousnousnousnousnous vousvousvousvousvous ils,elleslesleurseeux,elles
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  • Use of stressed pronouns for emphasis: To highlight or emphasise a pronoun, a common strategy is to double up by the addition of a stressed pronoun. e.g. Subject pronouns: Toi, tu le crois peut-tre mais lui, il ne le croit pas YOU might believe that, but HE doesnt
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  • Stressed pronouns: (subject) The stressed subject pronoun copy may equally appear at the end of the clause with the same effect: Tu le crois peut-tre toi, mais il ne le croit pas, lui.
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  • Stressed pronouns: (subject) When third person subject pronouns are highlighted or emphasised, the stressed pronoun alone may, on occasions, be used: HE could do it THEY would know what to say
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  • Stressed pronouns: (object) A common strategy is to add a second, stressed pronoun at either the beginning or the end of the clause: He confides in ME (and not in you) HE is known to be innocent
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  • Stressed pronouns standing alone Stressed pronouns are normally used where the pronoun stands alone, or is in a phrase without a verb: Qui est l?Moi (not *je) Qui as-tu vu?Lui (not *il)
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  • Reflexive verbs and pronouns A reflexive verb is a verb which is accompanied by a pronoun, called a reflexive pronoun, which serves to reflect the action of the verb back to the subject.
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  • Reflexive pronouns Subject Direct object Indirect object ReflexiveStressed jeme*me*me*moi tute*te*te*toi il,elle,on le, la luiselui,elle,soi nousnousnousnousnous vousvousvousvousvous ils,elleslesleurseeux,elles
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  • Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns are used only with pronominal verbs (les verbes pronominaux). They always agree with the subject of the sentence. Like object pronouns, the reflexive pronoun is placed directly in front of the verb in all tenses except the imperative. e.g. tu te lves lve-toi
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  • Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns always agree with their subjects, in all tenses and moods. 1. I will get up 2. We went to bed 3. Are you going to shave?
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  • Reflexive verbs are common in French. There are many English expressions that are not reflexive in English, but whose French equivalent is a reflexive verb. to get upto make a mistake to go to bedto stop to wake upto take a walk to be bored to have fun