Gratification Sought and Obtained from Mobile Phone by Aquaculture Farmers: Implication on Advisory Services Payment by Ifejika, P.I. National Institute

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Gratification Sought and Obtained from Mobile Phone by Aquaculture Farmers: Implication on Advisory Services Payment by Ifejika, P.I. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, P.M.B. 6006, New-Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria E-mails: & Mobile Phone: +2347089523717, +2348054565773 1 Slide 2 Introduction Methodology Result & Discussion Conclusion Recommendations Outline of Presentation 2 Slide 3 Introduction Mobile phone status in African continent About 65% of the population in Africa had access to mobile phone services in 2008 95% for North Africa and 60% for Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) countries (Aker and Mbiti, 2010) Mobile phone brought about changes in perceptive Which gave rise to: contemporary information society new information behaviour value for information 3 Slide 4 Introduction: Mobile phone in agriculture In agriculture farmers share in mobile phone information revolution emergence of mobile phone innovative platforms Mobile phone functions and benefits in agricultural extension services include (Aker, 2010) increase access to private information increase access to public information reduce costs of extension services improve information quality improve farmers management of input and output supply chains facilitate service delivery improve accountability via data collection strengthen links with research systems 4 Slide 5 Introduction: Innovative platforms Innovation system is a network of organizations focused on bringing new products, new processes and new forms of organization into social and economic use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behaviour and performance (The World Bank, 2007) Mobile phone innovative platforms in agriculture advisory services facilitates the following; repackaging of information in usable form investment creditability relevance quality effectiveness in terms of clarity, timeliness and comprehensive cost sharing to meet needs 5 Slide 6 Mobile phone innovative platforms provide operational information which is information that is practical, concrete and able to help solve existing problems (Gachie, Ruault and Mendy, 2006). India had 59 ICT platforms 10 depend sole on mobile phone (Saravanan, 2010) In Africa, 60 projects in 20 countries use ICT innovative platform (Gakuru et al., 2009) 38 of them rely on mobile phone platform 22 use voice calls and 16 use SMS E-Wallet is the only mobile phone platform in agriculture extension services at federal level in Nigeria Used to distribute fertilizer to crop farmers through SMS (Ifejika, 2013) 6 Slide 7 Capture fisheries had received more attention mobile innovative platform (Jensen, 2007; Ifejika and Oladosu, 2011; Killian, 2011). Theories applied in the study of mobile phone in capture fisheries found in literature were: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (Shaffril, Omar, Hassan, et al., 2012) Gender Theory and Activity Theory (Komunte, Rwashana and Nabukenya, 2012) Capability Theory (Ifejika and Oladosu, 2011) Livelihood Approach (Myhr and Nordstrm, 2006) Adoption and Diffusion Theory (Ofuoku, 2007) 7 Slide 8 Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT) in the study of mobile phone Communication experts activated UGT in the study of mobile phone provide better understanding of why and how we use media Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch (1973) institutionalised UGT with the following assumptions; members of the audience are not passive but take an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives audience are responsible for choosing media to meet their needs and fulfilment of specific gratifications UGT belongs to social functionalism and psychological communication perspectives (Luo, 2002) 8 Slide 9 UGT usefulness in mobile phone studies Understanding of gratifications sought and obtained clarify activity and activeness of media audiences Explains 3 attributes of new media like mobile phone (Quan-Haase and Young, 2010; Ruggiero, 2000). interactivity provide content in response demassification control of the individual over the medium asynchroneity storing of information 9 Slide 10 Problem statement Aquaculture is scaling up without commensurate extension services Aquaculture production rose from 5% in 2001 to 32.5% in 2010 Issues raised in UGT are critical advisory services provision in aquaculture functional mobile phone innovative platform Communication scholars focus on young people Limited application of UGT in mobile phone studies among farmers particularly aquaculture Gap in literature on mobile phone investigation among aquaculture farmers 10 Slide 11 Justification for the studies Present study seeks to break the jinx and to unfold why fish farmers acquire mobile phone and use it in job activities New information services delivery are needed to support fast growing aquaculture sub-sector Provide baseline information needed to setup mobile phone innovative platform for aquaculture operators Provide clue to setup mobile phone platform model for aquaculture in on going WAAPP programme. 11 Slide 12 Research questions What are the gratifications fish farmers sought and obtained from mobile phone? What is their mobile phone communication behaviour? What are their antecedents to subscribed mobile phone services? Will they be willing to pay and how much for aquaculture mobile phone advisory services? What is their personal profile? 12 Slide 13 Objectives set to accomplish were General objective determine gratification sought and obtains from mobile phone and its consequences on advisory services payment Specific objectives were to: Ascertain gratifications subjects sought and obtained from mobile phone, Determine subjects mobile phone communication behaviour, Find out their antecedents on subscribership to mobile phone services; Verify their willingness to pay and how much for mobile phone advisory services, and Determine their personal profiles. 13 Slide 14 Hypotheses Null hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between gratification sought and obtained from mobile with selected personal profiles in the States. H 1. Alternative hypothesis: Significant relationship exists between gratification sought and obtained from mobile phone with selected personal profiles in the States. 14 Slide 15 Area of Study and Methodology Area of Study Study was carried out in Niger state Located in guinea savannah, the north central geo- political zone. Lies on latitude 80 o to 11 o :30 North and longitude 03 o 30 to 07 o 40 East Blessed with hydroelectric power dams located at New-Bussa, Jebba and Shiroro to boost aquaculture Presence of Fisheries Research Institute and NCoS under WAAPP Renewed interest in aquaculture but weak extension services 15 Slide 16 Methodology Secondary information collected from Minna, Bida and New-Bussa put the population of fish farmers around 1000 Sample size for the study was contact fish farmers with ADP and NIFFR estimated at 250 For the study, 44% of sample size i.e. 110 were randomly selected as respondents from Minna, New- Bussa & Bida zones. Instrument for data collection was semi-structured questionnaire Face validated by experts in agricultural extension Cronbach Alpha values of 0.70 coefficient was obtained which confirmed instrument reliable 16 Slide 17 Measurement of variables and data analysis Variables were measured at Nominal (Yes-1; No-0) Ordinal (No-0; Low-1; High-2) Interval (state age in years) Categorization of scores: Low < 50 High> 50 Data analysis Primary data was generated through face to face interview by enumerators in 2013 Analysed with descriptive tools frequency, mean, percentage, standard deviation Inferential tool Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Results were presented in tables, figures, charts 17 Slide 18 Result and Discussions 18 Slide 19 Table 1: Responses on gratification sought to acquire mobile phone (%) Gratifications sought NoLowHigh Socialization 124345 Job Accomplishment 62668 Connected to people 41581 Time management 462232 Mobile & Accessible 2296 security 4030 Boost image 313930 Categorization High57% Low43% 19 Slide 20 Table 2: Job related gratifications obtained in aquaculture practice Gratifications obtainedNoYes Timely information694 Take informed decision2179 Adopt new technologies199 Increase fish yield1684 Link customers1694 Market information892 Better sells & profit1684 Improve access to inputs1981 Quick response & intervention1090 Reduce risk1783 Categorization Low29% High71% 20 Slide 21 21 Slide 22 Table 3: Mean amount respondents opted to pay for aquaculture mobile phone services (N) Communication mediumsDailyWeeklyFortnightlyMonthlyFinal Voice call 2142.819.839.830.8 Voice message Short message sending Flashing 71.9002.2 Internet 7.503.414.86.4 Video 4.10200.46.1 Mean of mean 22 Slide 23 Figure 3: Mobile phone communication behaviour of respondents Categorization: High=22%; Low=78% 23 Slide 24 Figure 4: Preferred reliable and trusted service providers Categorization: High=29%; Low=71% 24 Slide 25 Table 4: Personal profile of respondents Age% 20-30 Youth 23 31-40 (Young) 21 41-50 (Early adulthood) 28 51-60 (Middle adulthood) 24 < 61 (Late adulthood0 4 Mean 42 Religion Christianity 41 Muslim 59 Traditional 0 Marital status Single 21 Married 75 Widow 4 Divorced 0 25 Slide 26 Personal profile continues Years of experience in fish farming% 1 3 34 4 6 50 7 9 11 10 12 3 13 - 15 2 Education No school 2 Primary 0 JSS 0 SSS 14 NCE/ND 33 BSc 35 MSc 16 Gender Men 82 Women 18 26 Slide 27 Personal profile continues Language skillNo (%)Partial (%)very well (%) Speak Good English 2791 Category speakLow=29%; High=71% Read Good English2791 Category readLow=29%; High=71% Write Good English2692 Category writeLow=29%; High=71% 27 Slide 28 Table 5: Correlation analysis between gratification sought and obtained with selected personal characteristics Personal variables Correlation coefficient (r) p-value (r 2 )Remarks Age -.151 sought.083 obtain.133.412 negative & weak NS positive & weak NS Gender -.152 sought -.059 obtain.132.562 negative & weak NS Marital status -.218 Sought -.015 obtain.029.88 Negative & positive s* Negative & weak Religion -.417 sought -.023 obtain.000.821 Negative & stable* Negative and weak Education239 obtained.017 Positive & strong S* Significant; *= 0.05 levels; **=0.001 levels 28 Slide 29 Conclusion Outcome of the study was useful for better understanding of; Antecedents behaviour showed high awareness of paid mobile phone services but interested in development issues Received job related gratifications in fish farming Fish farmers communication behaviour with mobile phone (written & verbal) Their readiness to participate and pay for mobile phone advisory services Personal profile that will affect behaviour of subjects in participating and better management of mobile phone platform 29 Slide 30 Recommendations Some suggestions based on the result are; The stage is ripe for government and private service providers to set up mobile phone innovate platform for aquaculture farmers Simple model should be developed for mobile phone innovative platform in aquaculture Government agencies that are weak should be strengthen to be able to deliver quality services. 30 Slide 31 End of presentation Q & R And Merci &Thanks for listening End of presentation Q & R And Merci &Thanks for listening 31