Handbook of Meat Processing

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Handbook of Meat Processing

Handbook of Meat ProcessingFidel ToldrEDITOR

A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication

Edition rst published 2010 2010 Blackwell Publishing Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwells publishing program has been merged with Wileys global Scientic, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell. Editorial Ofce 2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014-8300, USA For details of our global editorial ofces, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book, please see our website at www.wiley.com/ wiley-blackwell. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specic clients, is granted by Blackwell Publishing, provided that the base fee is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payments has been arranged. The fee codes for users of the Transactional Reporting Service are ISBN-13: 978-0-8138-2182-5/2010. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of meat processing / edited by Fidel Toldr. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8138-2182-5 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. MeatHandbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Meat industry and tradeHandbooks, manuals, etc. I. Toldr, Fidel. TS1960.H36 2010 664.9dc22 2009037503 A catalog record for this book is available from the U.S. Library of Congress. Set in 10 on 12 pt Times by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited Printed in Singapore Disclaimer The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. 1 2010


Preface List of Contributors About the Editor PART I. Technologies 1. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Meat Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan

ix xi xv 3 5 25 43 87

2. Technological Quality of Meat for Processing Susan Brewer 3. 4. Meat Decontamination Panagiotis N. Skandamis, George-John E. Nychas, and John N. Sofos Aging/Tenderization Mechanisms Brian C. Bowker, Janet S. Eastridge, Ernie W. Paroczay, Janice A. Callahan, and Morse B. Solomon Freezing/Thawing Christian James and Stephen J. James


105 125 143 169 185

6. Curing Karl O. Honikel 7. 8. 9. Emulsication Irene Allais Thermal Processing Jane Ann Boles Fermentation: Microbiology and Biochemistry Spiros Paramithiotis, Eleftherios H. Drosinos, John N. Sofos, and George-John E. Nychas Starter Cultures for Meat Fermentation Pier Sandro Cocconcelli and Cecilia Fontana Drying Endre Zukl and Klmn Incze

10. 11.

199 219




12. Smoking Zdzisaw E. Sikorski and Edward Kolakowski 13. 14. 15. Meat Packaging Maurice G. OSullivan and Joseph P. Kerry Novel Technologies for Microbial Spoilage Prevention Oleksandr Tokarskyy and Douglas L. Marshall Plant Cleaning and Sanitation Stefania Quintavalla

231 247 263 287

PART II. Products 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Cooked Ham Fidel Toldr, Leticia Mora, and Mnica Flores Cooked Sausages Eero Puolanne Bacon Peter R. Sheard Canned Products and Pt Isabel Guerrero Legarreta Dry-Cured Ham Fidel Toldr and M. Concepcin Aristoy Mold-Ripened Sausages Klmn Incze Semidry and Dry Fermented Sausages Graciela Vignolo, Cecilia Fontana, and Silvina Fadda Restructured Whole-Tissue Meats Mustafa M. Farouk Functional Meat Products Keizo Arihara and Motoko Ohata

299 301 313 327 337 351 363 379 399 423

PART III. Controls 25. 26. 27. 28. Physical Sensors for Quality Control during Processing Marta Castro-Girldez, Pedro Jos Fito, Fidel Toldr, and Pedro Fito Sensory Evaluation of Meat Products Geoffrey R. Nute Detection of Chemical Hazards Milagro Reig and Fidel Toldr Microbial Hazards in Foods: Food-Borne Infections and Intoxications Daniel Y. C. Fung

441 443 457 469 481




Assessment of Genetically Modied Organisms (GMO) in Meat Products by PCR Marta Hernndez, Alejandro Ferrando, and David Rodrguez-Lzaro HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Maria Joo Fraqueza and Antnio Salvador Barreto

501 519 547


31. Quality Assurance Friedrich-Karl Lcke Index



For centuries, meat and its derived products have constituted some of the most important foods consumed in many countries around the world. Despite this important role, there are few books dealing with meat and its processing technologies. This book provides the reader with an extensive description of meat processing, giving the latest advances in technologies, manufacturing processes, and tools for the effective control of safety and quality during processing. To achieve this goal, the book contains 31 chapters distributed in three parts. The rst part deals with the description of meat chemistry, its quality for further processing, and the main technologies used in meat processing, such as decontamination, aging, freezing, curing, emulsication, thermal processing, fermentation, starter cultures, drying, smoking, packaging, novel technologies, and cleaning. The second part describes the manufacture and main characteristics of

worldwide meat products such as cooked ham and sausages, bacon, canned products and pt, dry-cured ham, mold-ripened sausages, semidry and dry fermented sausages, restructured meats, and functional meat products. The third part presents efcient strategies to control the sensory and safety quality of meat and meat products, including physical sensors, sensory evaluation, chemical and microbial hazards, detection of GMOs, HACCP, and quality assurance. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts from fteen countries. The editor wishes to thank all the contributors for their hard work and for sharing their valuable experience, as well as to thank the production team at WileyBlackwell. I also want to express my appreciation to Ms. Susan Engelken for her kind support and coordination of this book. Fidel Toldr



Irene Allais Cemagref, UMR Genial, Equipe Automat & Qualite Alimentaire, 24 Av Landais, F-63172 Aubiere 1, France. E-mail: irene.allais@cemagref.fr Keizo Arihara Department of Animal Science, Kitasato University, Towada-shi, Aomori 034-8628, Japan. E-mail: arihara@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp M. Concepcin Aristoy Department of Food Science, Instituto de Agroqumica y Tecnologa de Alimentos (CSIC), PO Box 73, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia), Spain. E-mail: mcaristoy@iata.csic.es Antnio Salvador Barreto Faculdade de Medicina Veterinria, DPASA, TULisbon, Av. da Universidade Tecnica, Polo Universitrio, Alto da Ajuda, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal. Jane Ann Boles Animal and Range Sciences, 119 Lineld Hall, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA. E-mail: jboles@montana.edu Brian C. Bowker Food Technology and Safety Laboratory, Bldg 201, BARC-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA. E-mail: brian.bowker@ars.usda.gov

Susan Brewer Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, USA. E-mail: msbrewer@illinois.edu Janice A. Callahan Food Technology and Safety Laboratory, Bldg 201, BARC-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA. E-mail: Janice.callahan@ars.usda.gov Marta Castro-Girldez Institute of Food Engineering for Development, Universidad Politcnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain. Pier Sandro Cocconcelli Istituto di Microbiologia, Centro Ricerche Biotecnologiche, Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza-Cremona, Italy. E-mail: pier.cocconcelli@unicatt.it Eleftherios H. Drosinos Laboratory of Food Quality Control and Hygiene, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, Votanikos, 11855 Athens, Greece. E-mail: ehd@aua.gr Janet S. Eastridge Food Technology and Safety Laboratory, Bldg 201, BARC-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA. E-mail: janet.eastridge@ars.usda.govxi



Silvina Fadda Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (CERELA), CONICET., Chacabuco 145, T4000IL