Hardrock Tunnel Boring Machines - unitn.· Bernhard Maidl, Leonhard Schmid, Willy Ritz, Martin Herren

  • View
    214

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Text of Hardrock Tunnel Boring Machines - unitn.· Bernhard Maidl, Leonhard Schmid, Willy Ritz, Martin...

  • Bernhard Maidl, Leonhard Schmid, Willy Ritz, Martin Herren knecht

    Hardrock Tunnel Boring Machines In co-operation with Gerhard Wehrmeyer and Marcus Derbort

    -=rnst & So h n --A Wley Company

  • Contents

    2 2.1 2. 1.1 2.1.2 2. 1.3 2.1.4 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.2

    3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.4.1 3.6.4.2 3.6.5 3.6.5. 1

    Historical Development and Future C hallenges .... .... ...... . .

    Basic P rinciples and Dcfini tions . . ..... . . ... ..... . .......... . Basic Principlcs and Construction .......... . ......... .... .... . Boring System ......................... . ............... .. . Thrust and Clarnping System ..... . . . .. ... ..... ..... . . . . . .. .. . Muck Removal System ......... ..... . . ... . .. .... . . ..... .. . . Support Systern . .. ..... . ..... .. . . . .. .......... ........ . .. . Definitions and Terms ............ . ........................ . Tunnel Boring Machines with Fuii-Face Excavation .............. . Gripper TBM ..... ... ............................ . . ... ... . Shielded TBM ................ . ....................... . .. . Tunnel Boring Machines for Partial Excavation ..... .. . ... ... ... .

    Boring Operation ............... . .............. .... ...... . The Boring Process ....................................... . The Cutter Head . . . .............................. .. ....... . Shape of the Cutter Head .......... .... . . .......... .... .. . .. . Clearing the Muck in the Excavation Area ..... ...... . ......... . Cutter Head Construction and Soil Consolidation ...... ...... .... . Cutting Tools .. .. .............. .... ...................... . Generai ..... .......... ...... ......... ........ ........ ... . Working Method of Cutter Discs ....... . ..................... . Cutter Spacing ..... ........................ .. . . .......... . Penetration ... .. . ..... ........ .. . . . . . ......... ..... . .... . . Wear . . . . ..... . . .... .......... . ......... . . ..... . ........ . Wear and Water .... .......... . . . ..... .. ......... . . . .. .... . Cutter Housing ............................ .. .... . ........ . The Main Drive ..... ...... ............................ ... . Types of Mai n Drive ....... ...... ......... ....... ...... .... . Main Bearing ...... ...... ............................ . ... . Advance Rate .. . ..... . ....... .. . ..... . ....... .. . . . ....... . Special Types . ... ........ . ............... ...... ........ . . . Reatner TBMs .... ............ .... .......... . . ..... ...... . Bouygues System ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ . . Mobile Miner (Robbins) ........... .. ...................... . Back-Cutting Techno1ogy ......... . ................. ... ..... . Mini-Fullfacer (Atlas Copco) ................. . ...... . . .... .. . Continuous Miner . ... ....... . . ...... ........ .. . . . ... ..... . Shaft Sinking ... ...... .......... ...... . ............. . . ... . Raise Boring .. . . . ............. . . . .... .. ......... . ... . .... .

    15 16 16 17 18 18 20 20 20 22 23

    25 25 26 27 29 31 32 32 33 36 38 41 48 49 50 50 53 53 55 56 57 58 58 58 60 61 62

  • VIl i

    3.6.5.2 3.6.5.3

    4 4. 1 4.2 4.3

    5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2. 1.1 5.2.1.2 5.2.1.3 5.2.1.4 5.2.1.5 5.2.2 5.2.2. 1 5.2.2.2 5.2 .2.3 5.2.3 5.2.3.1 5.2.3.2 5.2.3.3

    6 6.1 6.2

    7 7.1 7.1. 1 7.1.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 .1 7.3.2 7.3.2.1 7.3.2.2 7.3.3 7.3.3.1 7.3.3.2 7.3.3.3

    Contents

    Blind Drill ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    Thrust . ... . ... . . . ........... . ... . . ... . ........ .. . . . . . . . , 67 Generai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Advancc with Gripper Clamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Aclvance with a Shield TBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    Material Transpor t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Materia! Transport at the Maclllne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Materia! Transport Through the Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Rail Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Diesel or Electric Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Muck Cars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Loading in the Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Train Timctable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Tunnel Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Trackless Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Transport Vchicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Haul Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Conveyor Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Conveyor Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Conveyor Belt Extension and Belt Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Advantages of Conveyor Ttansport and Innovati o n Potential . . . . . . . . 87

    Backup Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Backup Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Design Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

    Ventilation, Dust Removal, Working Safety, Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Venti1ation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Danger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Venti1ation Schemes, Venti1ation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Dust Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Occupational Safety and Safety Planning for TBM Operati o n . . . . . . . l 03 Genera] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 03 International Guidelines and National Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Intemational Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 National Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 04 Integrated Safety Pian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 The Safety Pian in the Environment of Management P1ans . . . . . . . . . l 06 Safety Aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 07 Description of Dangers and Risk Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 07

  • Contents

    7.3 .3.-l 7.3.4

    7.3.4. 1 7.3.4.2 7.4

    8 8.1 8.2 8.2. l 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.3 8.3. 1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.4 8.4. 1 8.4.2

    9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.3. 1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3 .3. 1 9.3.3.2 9.4 9.4. l 9.4.2 9.5 9.5. 1 9.5.2 9.6

    IO l 0.1 10.2 10.3

    IX

    /\ction Pian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 09 TBM Details and Spccifics Regarding :--latural Gas Dangcr an d Rock Supporr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Il O ~a turai Gas Danger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l l O Rock Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 l Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Il l

    Additional Equipmcnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5 Jnvestigation an d lmprovcmcnt of the Geologica! Conditions . . . . . . . l l 5 Equipment for Rock Supporl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Anchor Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Steel Rng Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Mesh Installation Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Innovation Aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 TBM Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Steering the Gripper TBM with Sing le Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Steeting the Gripper TBM with x~Type Clamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Steering a Single Shicld TBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Steering a Double Shield TBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Surveying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Surveying the Posi ti o n of the Tunnel Boring Ma chine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Forward Calculation of the TBM Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

    Thnnel Support . . . . . . .