1 The overall heat transfer coefficient ranges from about 10 W/m 2 C for gas-to- gas heat exchangers to about 10,000 W/m 2 C for heat exchangers that involve phase changes. For short fins of high thermal conductivity, we can use this total area in the convection resistance relation R conv = 1/hA s To account for fin efficiency When the tube is ﬁnned on one side to enhance heat transfer, the total heat transfer surface area on the finned side is
The overall heat transfer coefficient ranges from about 10 W/m2C for gas-to-gas heat exchangers to about 10,000 W/m2C for heat exchangers that involve phase changes.
For short fins of high thermal conductivity, we can use this total area in the convection resistance relation Rconv = 1/hAs
To account for fin efficiency
When the tube is finned on one side to enhance heat transfer, the total heat transfer surface area on
the finned side is
Fouling FactorThe performance of heat exchangers usually deteriorates with time as a result of accumulation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces. The layer of deposits represents additional resistance to heat transfer. This is represented by a fouling factor Rf.
The fouling factor increases with the operating temperature and the length of service and decreases with the velocity of the fluids.
Thermal Conductivity of solids
Typical value for overall heat transfer coefficient
Shell and Tube
Heat Exchangers Hot Fluid Cold Fluid U [W/m2C]
Heat Exchangers Water Water 800 - 1500
Organic solvents Organic Solvents 100 - 300
Light oils Light oils 100 - 400
Heavy oils Heavy oils 50 - 300
Reduced crude Flashed crude 35 - 150
Regenerated DEA Foul DEA 450 - 650
Gases (p = atm) Gases (p = atm) 5 - 35
Gases (p = 200 bar) Gases (p = 200 bar) 100 - 300
Coolers Organic solvents Water 250 - 750
Light oils Water 350 - 700
Heavy oils Water 60 - 300
Reduced crude Water 75 - 200
Gases (p = 200 bar) Water 150 - 400
Organic solvents Brine 150 - 500
Water Brine 600 - 1200
Gases Brine 15 - 2504
Heat Exchangers Hot Fluid Cold Fluid U [W/m2C]
Heaters Steam Water 1500 - 4000
Steam Organic solvents 500 - 1000
Steam Light oils 300 - 900
Steam Heavy oils 60 - 450
Steam Gases 30 - 300
Heat Transfer (hot) Oil Heavy oils 50 - 300
Flue gases Steam 30 - 100
Flue gases Hydrocarbon vapors 30 -100
Condensers Aqueous vapors Water 1000 - 1500
Organic vapors Water 700 - 1000
Refinery hydrocarbons Water 400 - 550
Vapors with some non
condensableWater 500 - 700
Vacuum condensers Water 200 - 500
Vaporizers Steam Aqueous solutions 1000 - 1500
Steam Light organics 900 - 1200
Steam Heavy organics 600 - 900
Heat Transfer (hot) oil Refinery hydrocarbons 250 - 550
cal/g° Ck watt/cm
K g/cm3 1E6/Ωm
Brass 0.09 1.09 8.5
Iron 0.11 0.803 7.87 11.2
Nickel 0.106 0.905 8.9 14.6
Copper 0.093 3.98 8.95 60.7
Aluminum 0.217 2.37 2.7 37.7
Lead 0.0305 0.352 11.2
alpha-beta brass - a brass that has more zinc and is stronger than alpha brass; used in making castings and hot-worked products
Sp heat capacity of some metals
Thermal Conductivity of liquids
Thermal conductivity of gases
Effectiveness for heat exchangers.
When all the inlet and outlet temperatures are specified, the size of the heat exchanger can easily be determined using the LMTD method. Alternatively, it can be determined from the effectiveness–NTU method by first evaluating the effectiveness from its definition and then the NTU from the appropriate NTU relation.
Tube MaterialsCarbon Steel Affords both strength & corrosion resistanceStandard 12 Ga A-214 ERW (1” or 1½” OD)
Optional 10 Ga A-214 ERW
10 Ga or 12 Ga A-179 Seamless
Stainless Steel (304L or 316L)When corrosive steam is present or when ideal piping & trapping practices cannot be followed14 Ga (1” OD) & 12 Ga (1½” OD)
Fin MaterialsSteel Fins stand up against aggressive cleaning0.024” Thick on 1” OD or 1 1/2” OD Tubes0.036” Thick on 1 ½” OD Tubes
Aluminum Fins provide the best overall value0.020” Thick Keyfin on all Tube Sizes0.030” Thick Keyfin on all Tube Sizes
Stainless Steel Fins fight high external corrosion0.020” Thick Type 304L & 316L on 1” OD Tubes
Copper Fins provide the best heat transfer0.016” Thick on All Tube Sizes
Observations from the effectiveness relations and charts
• The value of the effectiveness ranges from 0 to 1. It increases rapidly with NTU for small values (up to about NTU = 1.5) but rather slowly for larger values. Therefore, the use of a heat exchanger with a large NTU (usually larger than 3) and thus a large size cannot be justified economically, since a large increase in NTU in this case corresponds to a small increase in effectiveness.
• For a given NTU and capacity ratio c = Cmin /Cmax, the counter-flow heat exchanger has the highest effectiveness, followed closely by the cross-flow heat exchangers with both fluids unmixed. The lowest effectiveness values are encountered in parallel-flow heat exchangers.
• The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is independent of the capacity ratio c for NTU values of less than about 0.3.
• The value of the capacity ratio c ranges between 0 and 1. For a given NTU, the effectiveness becomes a maximum for c = 0 (e.g., boiler, condenser) and a minimum for c = 1 (when the heat capacity rates of the two fluids are equal).