HELCOM and the Baltic Sea

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HELCOM and the Baltic Sea. Antti Rike Finnish Environment Institute. The most serious threats. Eutrophication Contaminants Transport of oil - Intensively studied - Poorly known - Expanding. Indicator of eutrophication: Chlorophyll a concentration. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<ul><li><p>HELCOM and the Baltic Sea </p><p>Antti RikeFinnish Environment Institute</p></li><li><p>The most serious threatsEutrophication Contaminants Transport of oil</p><p>- Intensively studied - Poorly known - Expanding</p></li><li><p>Indicator of eutrophication:Chlorophyll a concentrationSource: JRC</p></li><li><p>Long term trends of riverine nutrient fluxes into the Archipelago SeaPhosphorus NitrogenPhosphorusNitrogen</p></li><li><p>HELCOM 50% reduction goalMinisterial declaration in 1988 Anthropogenic loading should be reduced by 50% from 1987 levels by the year 1995Situation in 2000Point source loads have substantially decreasedNutrient losses from agriculture Especially phosphorus losses remain in a high levelMore specific targets have been elaborated</p></li><li><p>HELCOM BREMEN DECLARATIONMinisterial declaration in 2003One of the main sources of the still excessive inputs of nutrients are:Nitrogen from agriculturealso losses of phosphorus give rise to concern in several countriesOrganic farming can contribute to marine environment protection. Therefore the promotion of organic farming in addition to the contribution of agro-environmental measures can help to reduce negative impacts from agricultural sources.</p></li><li><p>PLCAirWaterCOMBINE</p></li><li><p>HELCOM LANDResponsible for reducing pollution from all sources on land within the Baltic Seas catchment areaPropose actions and promote investment activities in order to reduce emissions and discharges to the Baltic Sea AreaHarmonize HELCOM recommendations in the field of land based pollution with EU and other relevant organizations Follow up the implementation of HELCOM recommendations (six recommendations closely linked to agriculture)</p></li><li><p>HELCOM MONASResponsible for monitoring of open sea areas and coastal waters (COMBINE)Identify and quantify the anthropogenic discharges/losses of pollutants (PLC)Detect changes in loading and possible effects in marine environmentMake periodic assessments and annual indicator reports </p></li><li><p>The Baltic Sea Regional Project</p><p>Managed by HELCOM and the Project Implementation Team</p><p>Component 2. Land and Coastal Management ActivitiesIncreases awareness of environmental issues related to agriculture among farmers and communities Invests in and implements environmentally responsible farm management practicesIn the long-term, improves the economic welfare and standard of living within the farming community while reducing agricultural pollution </p></li><li><p>Pollution load compilation (PLC)The aim is to get a comprehensive overview of the total amount of loading to the Baltic SeaAir and Water parts separatelyBased on monitoring dataParameters: nutrients, organic matter, heavy metalsRiverine transport and direct point sourcesPLC Water (PLC-1 1987, PLC-2 1990, PLC-3 1995, PLC-4 2000) Next PLC in 2006</p></li><li><p>PLC-4Data collection in 2000Report will be published in 2004Whole BS catchment area included Also data on discharges/losses into freshwater Data requirements explodedSource apportionment and retention of nutrients Quantify the major sources of loading</p></li><li><p>Different source categories in PLC WaterPoint sourcesMunicipalitiesIndustryFish farmingDiffuse sources Agriculture (including managed forestry)Scattered dwellingsStorm water overflowsAtmospheric deposition (on lakes)Natural leaching</p></li><li><p>Diffuse losses into freshwaters in 2002 NTotal load into freshwaters in 2002PSource: HELCOM PLC-4</p></li><li><p>Important questions related to agricultureTotal amount of lossesLocation of fields (retention)Seasonal timing of lossesBioavailabilityTime lag (e.g. Latvian rivers)Nutrient ratios (limiting nutrient)If P load decreases what happens to NStlnacke hypothesis</p></li><li><p>Concluding remarksTo reach the 50% reduction goal agriculture is in key position Organic farming is part of the solutionMore accurate estimates of losses needed</p></li></ul>


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