Click here to load reader

Historic Fishing Methods in American Samoa

  • View
    217

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Text of Historic Fishing Methods in American Samoa

  • NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC-24

    June 2011

    Historic Fishing Methods in American Samoa

    Karen Armstrong David Herdrich Arielle Levine

    Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce

  • About this document The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to understand and predict changes in the Earth=s environment and to conserve and manage coastal and oceanic marine resources and habitats to help meet our Nation=s economic, social, and environmental needs. As a branch of NOAA, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) conducts or sponsors research and monitoring programs to improve the scientific basis for conservation and management decisions. NMFS strives to make information about the purpose, methods, and results of its scientific studies widely available. NMFS= Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) uses the NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS series to achieve timely dissemination of scientific and technical information that is of high quality but inappropriate for publication in the formal peer-reviewed literature. The contents are of broad scope, including technical workshop proceedings, large data compilations, status reports and reviews, lengthy scientific or statistical monographs, and more. NOAA Technical Memoranda published by the PIFSC, although informal, are subjected to extensive review and editing and reflect sound professional work. Accordingly, they may be referenced in the formal scientific and technical literature. A NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS issued by the PIFSC may be cited using the following format:

    Armstrong, K., D. Herdrich, and A. Levine. 2011. Historic fishing methods in American Samoa. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo., NOAA-TM-NMFS-PIFSC-24, 70 p. + Appendices.

    __________________________ For further information direct inquiries to

    Chief, Scientific Information Services Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce 2570 Dole Street Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2396

    Phone: 808-983-5386 Fax: 808-983-2902

    ___________________________________________________________ Cover: Polynesian Photo Archives, American Samoa, Jean P. Haydon Collection.

  • Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce

    Historic Fishing Methods in American Samoa

    Karen Armstrong1 David Herdrich2 Arielle Levine3

    1Social and Cultural Anthropology PL-59 (Unioninkatu 38), University of Helsinki 00014, Finland

    2American Samoa Historic Preservation Office

    Executive Offices of the Governor, American Samoa Government American Samoa 96799

    3Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research

    1000 Pope Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC-24

    June 2011

  • iii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was sponsored in part through a NOAA Preserve America Initiative Grant, as part of the project: Documenting Traditional Knowledge and Marine Resource Use and Management in American Samoa. The research involved interviews with elder fishermen from coastal villages in Tutuila and the Manua Islands. The grant also supported the production of a related video Palolo: The cultural and environmental significance of American Samoas marine worm, which provides video documentation of some of the material presented in this report. Additional copies of this report or the palolo video can be obtained through the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC). A PDF file of the report is available on the PIFSC library website at http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/pubs/techpub_date.php. Additonal support was received from Academy of Finland, project SA-118442. Our thanks to Paul Anderson of the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme for creating the maps, Evelyn Lilio for providing photos from Fagasa village, and American Samoas Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources.

  • iv

    DISCLAIMER

    This report has been financed in part with Historic Preservation Funds from the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

    NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY This program received Federal funds from the U.S. National Park Service. Regulations of the U.S. Department of Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex, or handicap. Any person who believes he or she has been discriminated against in any program, activity or facility operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director, Equal Opportunity Progam, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 20013-7127.

  • v

    CONTENTS Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1 Fishing Seasonality ............................................................................................................. 4

    Atule ................................................................................................................................ 5 Palolo and Seasonality .................................................................................................... 6 The Pleiades (Mata-liki) ................................................................................................. 8

    Samoan Social Structure ..................................................................................................... 8 Division of Labor in Fishing ......................................................................................... 12

    Fishing Techniques ........................................................................................................... 13 Technique: Nets ........................................................................................................... 13

    Ordinary Family Fishing ........................................................................................... 14 Fishing for Two Kinds of Mullet .............................................................................. 15 Fish Drives in Pago Harbor....................................................................................... 16

    Technique: Fish Weirs .................................................................................................. 17 Technique: Fishhooks ................................................................................................... 18 Technique: Floats (uto) ................................................................................................. 21 Technique: Specialized Fishing with Boats .................................................................. 22

    Fishing for Sharks ..................................................................................................... 22 Bonito Fishing ........................................................................................................... 24

    Technique: Fish Poisoning ............................................................................................ 28 Other Types of Fishing ................................................................................................. 29 Squid Lures: Catching Octopus ................................................................................ 29 Traps and Pots: Fish, Crabs, Crayfish, Lobsters ....................................................... 31 Turtles ....................................................................................................................... 32 Prawns ....................................................................................................................... 32 Eels ............................................................................................................................ 33 Legends: Significance and Continuity .............................................................................. 33

    Atule Stones: Aoloau .................................................................................................... 34 Atule Stones: Fagasa ..................................................................................................... 35

    Talking Chief Salas Tale ......................................................................................... 35 The Dolphins of Fagasa ............................................................................................ 37 The Blessing of the Rocks, Fagasa ........................................................................... 38

    Atule Rock: Asili .......................................................................................................... 39 Fishing Rock: Fagamalo ............................................................................................... 40

    Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 40 Photographs: ..................................................................................................................... 42

    Polynesian Photo Archives Photographs ...................................................................... 42 Recent Atule Rock Photographs ................................................................................... 50 Evelyn Lilio: Atule Rock and Tradi