History of European Cooperation and Integration

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History of European Cooperation and Integration. The Beginnings of European Integration after World War II. Introduction. New website for this class: http://mravinac.pbwiki.com/european_integration Pro-integrationist forces after WWII Post-war challenges in Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • History of European Cooperation and IntegrationThe Beginnings of European Integration after World War II

  • IntroductionNew website for this class: http://mravinac.pbwiki.com/european_integrationPro-integrationist forces after WWIIPost-war challenges in EuropeThe beginnings of economic integrationFailure of common defense projectThe Treaties of Rome

  • 1) Pro-integrationist forces after WWIIWWII a new impulse for federalist movement Diverging views on how the face of Europe should be changedDecember 1947 International Movement for European Unity a committee coordinating activities of various organizations promoting European unity- Prominent members included W. Churchill and Coudenhove-Calerghi; supported by the USEuropean Congress inHaague

  • European Congress inHaague May 1948

    Attracted high profile statesmen: Robert Schuman, Alcide de Gasperi, Paul-Henri Spaak, Konrd Adenauer Goal: to negotiate proposals for creation of European organization fostering political, cultural and economic cooperationConflict between federalists and intergovernmentalists

    Paved way for the Council of Europe

  • Council of EuropeMay 5, 1949 - Council of Europe Statute signed in London First post-WWII international political org. in Europe- 10 founding members (Bel, Net, Lux, Den, Fr, Ire, Ita, Nor, Swe, UK)- Seat in Strasbourg - Active in the area of human rights and political freedomsCore: European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamentals Freedoms -1950European Court of Human Rights- Democratic conscience of Europe- today: 46 members vs. puny political impact

  • 2) Post-war challenges in EuropeEconomic instability limits of common actionThe German ProblemUSSR and its sphere of influence

  • Economic instability limits of common actionEconomic problems threaten political stability and cooperationMarshall plan 1947: 13 billion USD = 5% US HNP)Conditionality recipients must strip down trade barriers & create an international org. to distribute the aidAlso offered to USSR and its satellites turned downOEEC 1948 to distribute aid, reduce tariffs & quotas, support international trade- conflict between French (supranat.) & British (intgov.) approach intgov. wonPROVIDED IMPORTANT LESSONS FOR SUBSEQUENT ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

  • The German ProblemOpposing views on GER future on part of the occupation powers US, FR, GB and USSRAnxious FR Bruselss pact in 1948Eventually, western allies agreed on common stance (reaction to Soviet activities)Introduction of Deutsche Mark 1948 Berlin blockade considered an opening scene of the Cold War

  • Soviet threatUS administration feared growing influence of USSR NATO April 4, 1949 Defensive alliance of US, CAN and European allies (without GER), European allies little to contributeFR very anxious about potential resurgence of GER power need to find a solution

  • 3) The beginnings of economic integrationRuhr Authority 1948 strategic resources control by AlliesSchuman plan (author - Jean Monnet)- Gradual integration of economic sectorsBased on common market with coal and steelBy fostering interdependence growth of trust, economic prosperity, normalization of international relationsForm: supranational organization managed by High Authority independent on governments, powerfulUSA supported the idea from the outset

  • Schuman Plan in EuropeGER supported Schuman plan (Chancellor Adenauer) reasons: emancipation, industrial developmentOther interested parties IT, BeneluxUK + Nordic fringe not supportive. Reasons ssovereignty and different economic policies

  • European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)Members not united over the powers and institutional structure of the proposed community compromise between federative and intergov. approach:

    High Authority fed., Council intergov HA main executive powers within the Treatys frameworkCouncil Must approve HA actions, balancing the influence of big member states (MS)Assembly weak, merely control by national parliamentsCourt of Justice independent arbiter, highest legal authorityECSC based on political consensus

    Treaty of Paris April 1951 GER,FR, BEL, NET, LUX, ITA, limited to 50 years

    - Predestined modus operandi of all subsequent ECs

  • 4) Failure of common defense projectECSC partially dispelled FR anxiety over GERUSA pushing for GER remilitarization for defense purposesFR against GER admission to NATO weakly policedPleven plan European armies joined under single supranational command, creation of European Defense Community

    EDC linked with ECSC via political cooperation in the framework of European Political Community (EPC)1953 EDC turned down by FR parliament

  • Further Economic IntegrationFederalists attempts for political community failedECSC successful, fast development of new economic sectors offered another chanceFurther development intergovernmental or supranational?Intergovernmental broad support by most WE statesSupranational greater added value from federalists point of view

  • Further Economic Integration (2)ECSC member chose the supranational formula (influenced by Monnet)Two strands - Common marketNuclear energy

  • 5) The Treaties of RomeMarch 1957 EURATOM and EECUnlimited time-spanThree European CommunitiesSimilar institutional structureMandate given by international treaties

  • EURATOMGoal: common market with nuclear material, R&D support for peaceful purposes, proliferation control Common development strategy, sharing of informationInitially perceived as more progressive (broader consensus) LIMITS: project limited by changing national interests Common market limited, states kept control of strategic resources supply chains

  • European Economic Community (EEC)Goal: creation of common market based on the so-called 4 freedoms goods, capital, persons and servicesIn steps: Free trade area, customs union and harmonization of legal requirements Broad and often open-ended mandate (see Art 2)

  • Institutional Structure of EECBased on ECSC modelCommission, Council of Ministers, Assembly, Court of Justice and an advisory body called Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC)Assembly and Court Common for all CommunitiesOther institutions merged in 1965 via Merger Treaty

  • ConclusionsReasons forging EC both external and internal pressuresSupranational cooperation, only six core countries Other states reluctant to compromise on their sovereignty Economic cooperation viable alternative to political and defense cooperationSimilar trends observable till today

  • ReadingFounding Treaties ECSC, EURATOM, EEC at http://eur-lex.europa.eu http://mravinac.pbwiki.com/european_integrationReader from Dinans Europe Recast


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