History of Immigration in the US. General structure of immigration Waves (then troughs) of immigration  Reasons for immigration  Reactions to immigration

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First Immigrants Native Americans arrived around 20,000 years ago Vikings arrived around 1000

Text of History of Immigration in the US. General structure of immigration Waves (then troughs) of...

History of Immigration in the US General structure of immigration Waves (then troughs) of immigration Reasons for immigration Reactions to immigration Legislation reacting to immigration First Immigrants Native Americans arrived around 20,000 years ago Vikings arrived around 1000 Immigration in the Colonial Era (first waveuntil 1790) Many early European immigrants to the colonies came from England Spanish colonized Florida Dutch in New York/New Jersey Swedish in Delaware Slaves brought as early as 1619 Immigration in the Colonial Era (first waveuntil 1790) Religious Freedom (Puritans) Economic (Indentured Servants) Convicts Slavery Trough-hostilities btw US and France 1790: First Naturalization Act ... any alien, being a free white person, may be admitted to become a citizen of the United States... Immigration died down because of hostilities between the US and Napoleon during the early 1800s, as well as the war of After the end of the war, immigration picked up again Immigration after Independence (second wave ) Reasons were similar to before, origins similar to before Congress enacted the Steerage Act of 1810 which required ship captains to keep detailed passenger records and to provide better conditions for travelers Records were not kept until 1820 Industrial Revolution (third wave1820s to 1880s) Immigrants no longer English Irish settled on the East Coast Germans migrated to Midwest Chinese (railway; gold rush in California) Japanese Mexicans Industrial Revolution (third wave1820s to 1880s) Slave trade legally ended in 1808 With Westward expansion, needed labor Many new immigrants were very different from previous immigrants Different religionsIrish Catholics were the biggest group Many immigrants escaping famine Immigration after the Civil War (fourth wave1880 to1914) Even Greater diversity among immigrants Middle East, the Mediterranean, Southern and Eastern Europe Between 1880 and 1930, over 27 million people entered the United States Immigration after the Civil War (fourth wave1880 to1914) Ellis Island built in 1892 to process immigrants from Europe More restrictions were enacted 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act 1907 "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan 1906: Knowledge of English a requirement for immigration 1850 Know Nothing political party Immigration after WW I (trough ) World-wide depression, not many people immigrating Discrimination based on nationality e.g., Germans and Italians e.g., Japanese internment camps Immigration after WW I Immigration Act of 1924Quota act 1924 Act set the annual quota of any nationality at 2% of the number of foreign-born persons of such nationality resident in the United States in 1890 restricted Southern and Eastern Europeans and Africans. Banned immigration of Arabs and Asians Bracero Program-1943 Immigration after WW II (fifth wave ) Normal immigration resumed after WW II Three doors: a front door for immigrants, a side door for temporary visitors, and a back door for the unauthorized Escaping Cold War conflict (brain drain) HOWEVER, most immigrants are from Latin America Displaced Persons Act of 1948accepting refugees More women entering than men Immigration after WW II (fifth wave ) Normal immigration resumed after WW II Three doors: a front door for immigrants, a side door for temporary visitors, and a back door for the unauthorized Escaping Cold War conflict (brain drain) HOWEVER, most immigrants are from Latin America Displaced Persons Act of 1948accepting refugees More women entering than men Immigration Issues today 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)-- A comprehensive Reform effort 1) legalized aliens who had resided in the United States in an unlawful status since January 1, 1982 2) established sanctions prohibiting employers from hiring, recruiting, or referring for a fee aliens known to be unauthorized to work in the United States 3) created a new classification of temporary agricultural worker and provided for the legalization of certain such workers 4) established a visa waiver pilot program allowing the admission of certain nonimmigrants without visas Immigration today 41 million foreign-born individuals in US. 12.9 %of overall population. This percentage is still well below the 1890 high point for immigration, when 14.8 percent of the population was foreign born US Commission on Immigration reform ( Most immigrants are better educated than ever before Illegal immigration Illegal Immigration There were 11.3 million unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. in Mexicans make up about half of all unauthorized immigrants (49%), though their numbers have been declining in recent years. Six states alone account for 60% of unauthorized immigrants California, Texas, Florida, New York, New Jersey and Illinois. About 7% of K-12 students had at least one unauthorized immigrant parent in 2012 President Obama and Immigration Cracking Down on Illegal Immigration at the Border: Illegal immigrants caught and sent back. Centralize border security command-and-control Deporting Felons, Not Families: Deportation of people who threaten national security and public safety. Anyone suspected of terrorism, violent criminals, gang members, and recent border crossers at the top of the deportation priority list. Accountability Criminal Background Checks and Taxes: The President is also acting to hold accountable those undocumented immigrants who have lived in the U.S. for more than five years and are parents of U.S. citizens or Lawful Permanent Residents. By registering and passing criminal and national security background checks, millions of undocumented immigrants will start paying their fair share of taxes and temporarily stay in the U.S. without fear of deportation for three years at a time

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