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9 HOME ECONOMICS: FRONT OFFICE (ENTREPRENEURSHIP) Learner’s Material Department of Education Republic of the Philippines This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at [email protected]. We value your feedback and recommendations.


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developed and reviewed by educators from public
and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We
encourage teachers and other education
stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and
recommendations to the Department of Education at
[email protected]
Technology and Livelihood Education – Grade 9 Home Economics – Front Office Learner’s Material First Edition, 2014
Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any
work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the
government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for
exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things,
impose as a condition the payment of royalties.
Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand
names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective
copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to
use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and
authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.
Published by the Department of Education
Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC
Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, Ph.D.
Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat
Meralco Avenue, Pasig City
E-mail Address: [email protected]
Authors: Haydee C. Bueza, Socorro A. Bulic, Jenny A. Da-Anton,
Albert Datu, Jeffrey A. De Guzman, Anicita P. Domo, Alvin L. Espiritu,
Ellen P. Gonzaga, Girlie F. Guian, Aniceta S. Kong, Dorothy Manalanzan,
Lowela P. Margallo, Sandy Montano, Maria A. Roque, Juvy C. Valdemoro
Reviewers: Unina A. Bejarin, Winnie dela Cruz, Annabel Despabiladeras,
Jelly Flores, Karen Kate C. Villanueva, Catherine Villaruz
Editors: Merlyn Lee, Betty Puzon, Noel B. Bejo
Illustrator and Layout Artists: Henry Allen M. Arcos, Arlene A. Guiao
Consultant: Eleanor A. Malicdem
Management Team: Jocelyn DR Andaya, Jose D. Tuguinayo, Jr.
Table of Contents
Business Environment and Market ............................................. 9
Spotting and Identifying Business Opportunities ................... 12
Screening Business Ideas ........................................................... 12
Executive Summary
Hospitality management industry has one of the biggest demands of workforce on
the world today. People travel to places every now and then to relax, explore, be
entertained, and shortly escape from their rigid roles in the everyday work. In order to
address the guests’ needs for comfort, there are hotel staffs who can give them
heartwarming experiences which they may remember for the rest of their lives.
In this course, you will learn the core competencies that a Front Desk Officer should
experience in order to provide quality services to the clients. The module is designed to
improve your skills in your own pace based on the TESDA Training Regulations.
The first part of this learning resource will assess your Personal Entrepreneurial
Competencies and Skills (PECS) and let you demonstrate your understanding of the
environment and market in Front Office Services through developing a product or service,
selecting a business, and creating an identified brand for the product. The next part of the
module will then discuss the core competencies which are subdivided into four chapters. The
Chapter 1focuses on how to accurately receive and process reservations which describe the
procedures on receiving reservation request, recording and updating details of reservation,
and advising others about the reservation details. As part of the reservation procedure, you
will also learn to operate the computerized reservation system specifically accessing and
manipulating system information, creating reservation, sending and receiving
communications to colleagues using the required features of the system. The Chapter 2 lets
you demonstrate your skills in providing accommodation reception services which includes
preparing for guest arrival, welcoming and registering guests, organizing for their departure,
and preparing front office records and reports. The Chapter 3 allows you to monitor financial
transactions and complete routine records and report during the Night Audit, as well as
providing club reception services through processing club memberships, and monitoring the
guests’ affiliation to the club. Lastly, the Chapter 4 explains the processes on how to provide
porter services upon arrival and departure of guests, handling their luggage, and respond to
request for concierge services. This will also details the important tasks to be performed by
the cashier such as preparing the guest folio, collecting cash, and processing the receipts.
Enjoy using this module as your guide in attaining the National Certificate II (NCII) in
Front Office, be employed in the hospitality industry or establish your business for
sustainable source of living.
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the nomenclature in the
implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) composed of four
components; namely, Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and Information
and Communication Technology. In this module, the focus is on Home Economics course –
Front Office.
In this course, varied and relevant activities and opportunities are provided to
demonstrate your understanding of concepts and core competencies as prescribed in
TESDA Training Regulation in Front Office and provide quality services to target clients. This
will also be a venue for you to assess yourself and identify aspects of business that you
need to strengthen and safeguard before you become a part of the workforce.
Today in the world of work, the number of available jobs is scars and the Department
of Education is revitalizing its resources to lead the young mind and to prepare them skillfully
as future Receptionist. It is in honing the skills that learners can assure to have an edge of
surviving the daily needs of oneself and of others. It seeks to provide students with the
knowledge, attitude, values and skills in the field of Front Office.
This module is specifically crafted to focus on the different activities that will assess
your level in terms of skills and knowledge that you are expected to demonstrate through this
learner’s materials. Learning procedures are divided into different sections - What to Know,
What to Process, What to Reflect and Understand, and What to Transfer. Read and answer
with the suggested tasks and accomplish them to practice developing a sustainable
program, prioritizing needs and building vision.
So, explore and experience the K to 12 TLE modules and be a step closer to a
successful Receptionist someday.
After finishing all the activities in this module, expect job opportunities and experience to set up a business enterprise which
will generate jobs for others.
Content Standard The learners demonstrates understanding of the concepts and theories in Front Office Services Performance Standards
The learner independently demonstrates competencies in Front Office Services as prescribed in the TESDA Training Regulation.
Learning Objectives This module is dedicated for learners who aspire to improve their understanding and skills in Front Office Services and serve as their guide in attaining the National Certificate Level II (NCII).
Generally, learners are expected to become proficient in performing the following
competencies at the end of the course: 1. assess their Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs)
2. establish a business in the locality using the acquired skills and
competencies in Front Office Services
3. observe proper business etiquettes in handling and receiving phone
5. appreciate the importance of giving a courteous and personalized
service with the hotel guests
6. monitor financial transactions and record keeping
Are you ready now to explore and learn the
fundamentals of Front Office Services? You will surely
love to complete the exercises and be engaged in the
suggested hands on activities.
Keep reading and enjoy!
At the start of your journey in learning Front Office Services the Personal
Entrepreneurial Competencies and entrepreneurial mindsets were introduced. In this
concept review, you will be reminded of these lessons and you get to assess whether or not
you have the competencies found among entrepreneurs. In addition, a brief lesson on the
Business Environment and Idea Generation is provided to help contextualize how your skills
might be useful for an entrepreneurial venture. Read on to find out!
An entrepreneur is comprehensively defined by Zimmerer & Scarborough (2005) as
someone who “creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of
achieving profit and growth by identifying significant opportunities and assembling the
necessary resources to capitalize on them”. They are the ones who act on their business
There has been many studies to characterize “the entrepreneurial personality”;
although there is no isolated set of traits that guarantee success, there were identified
behaviors found common to most successful entrepreneurs. There is a well-known research
on human behavior done by McClelland and McBer which identified 10 behavioral patterns
organized into three general clusters: the achievement, planning, and power clusters
(SERDEF, 2007; 1998). It was found out that these behaviors were also typical
entrepreneurial behaviors. The entrepreneurial qualities, more known as the Personal
Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) are as follows:
Achievement Cluster
Opportunity seeking – Entrepreneurs have a good eye for spotting business
opportunities and acts on these opportunities appropriately.
Persistence - Entrepreneurs do not easily give up in the face of obstacles. They will
take repeated or different actions to overcome the hurdles of business. This includes
making a personal sacrifice or extraordinary effort to complete a job.
Commitment to work contract - Entrepreneur do their best to satisfy customers and to
deliver what is promised. They accept full responsibility for problems when
completing a job for customers.
Risk-taking - Entrepreneur are known for taking calculated risks and doing tasks that
are moderately challenging.
Demand for efficiency and quality - Entrepreneur see to it that the business meets or
exceeds existing standards of excellence and exerts efforts to improve past
performance and do things better. They set high but realistic standards.
Planning Cluster
Goal setting - Entrepreneur knows how to set specific, measurable, attainable,
realistic, and time-bound (SMART) goals. It is easy for them to divide large goals into
short-term goals.
Information seeking - Entrepreneur update themselves with new information about
her customers, the market, suppliers, and competitors. This is rooted to their innate
sense of curiosity.
Systematic planning and monitoring - Entrepreneurs develop and use logical, step-
by-step plans to reach their goals. They monitor progress towards goals and to alter
strategies when necessary.
Power Cluster
Persuasion and networking - Entrepreneurs know how to use the right strategies to
influence or persuade other people. They have naturally established a network of
people who they can turn to in order to achieve their objectives.
Self-confidence - Entrepreneurs have a strong belief in themselves and their own
abilities. They have self-awareness and belief in their own ability to complete a
difficult task or meet a challenge.
Assess your Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies by answering the items below.
Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) Self-rating
Read each statement carefully and answer honestly based on how well it describes you. There are five choices as follows:
Please write the number you have selected on the space
before each statement. Some statements may be similar but no two are exactly alike. Please go through each statement and answer all the items.
5 = Always 4 = Usually 3 = Sometimes 2 = Rarely 1 = Never
Let’s do This!
Rating ______1.I look for things that need to be done. ______2.When I am faced with a difficult problem, I spend a lot of time trying to find a
solution. ______3.I complete my work on time. ______4.It bothers me when things are not done very well. ______5.I prefer situations in which I can control the outcomes as much as possible. ______6.I like to think about the future. ______7.When starting a new task or project, I gather a great deal of information before
going ahead. ______8.I plan a large project by breaking it down into smaller tasks. ______9.I get others to support my recommendations. ______10.I feel confident that I will succeed at whatever I try to do. ______11.No matter whom I’m talking to, I’m a good listener. ______12.I do things that need to be done before being asked to by others. ______13.I try several times to get people to do what I would like them to do. ______14.I keep the promises I make. ______15.My own work is better than that of other people work with. ______16.I don’t try something new without making sure I will succeed. ______17.It’s a waste of time to worry about what to do with your life. ______18.I seek the advice of people who know a lot about the tasks I am working on. ______19.I think about the advantages and disadvantages or different ways of
accomplishing things. ______20.I do not spend much time thinking how to influence others. ______21.I change my mind if others disagree strongly with me. ______22.I feel resentful when I don’t get my way. ______23.I like challenges and new opportunities. ______24.When something gets in the way of what I’m trying to do, I keep on trying to
accomplish what I want. ______25.I am happy to do someone else’s work if necessary to get the job done on time. ______26.It bothers me when my time is wasted. ______27.I weigh my chances of succeeding or failing before I decide to do something. ______28.The more specific I can be about what I want out of life, the more chances I have
to succeed. ______29.I take action without wasting time gathering information. ______30.I try to think of all the problems I may encounter and plan what to do if each
problem occurs. ______31.I get important people to help me accomplish my goals. ______32.When trying something challenging, I feel confident that I will succeed. ______33.In the past, I have had failures. ______34.I prefer activities that I know well and with which I am comfortable. ______35.When faced with major difficulties, I quickly go on to other things. ______36.When I am doing a job for someone, I make a special effort to make sure that
person is happy with my work. ______37.I am never entirely happy with the way things are done; I always think there must be a better way. ______38.I do things that are risky. ______39.I have a very clear plan for my life. ______40.When working on a project for someone, I ask many questions to be sure I
understand what that person wants. ______41.I deal with problems as they arise, rather than spend time trying to anticipate
them. ______42.In order to reach my goals, I think of solutions that benefit. ______43.I do very good work.
______44.There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone. ______45.I try things that are very new and different from what I have done before. ______46.I try several ways to overcome things that get in the way of reaching my goals. ______47.My family and personal life are more important to me than work deadlines I set for
myself. ______48.I find ways to complete tasks faster at work and at home. ______49.I do things that others consider risky. ______50.I am as concerned about meeting my weekly goals as I am for my yearly goals. ______51.I go to several different sources to get information for tasks or projects. ______52.If one approach to a problem does not work, I think of another approach. ______53.I am able to get people who have strong opinions or ideas to change their minds. ______54.I stick with my decisions even if others disagree strongly with me. ______55.When I don’t know something, I don’t mind admitting it.
Please proceed to the next section where you may determine your score. The point
system will indicate whether you manifest strong tendencies or weak inclinations towards a
particular behavior.
PEC’s Scoring Sheet
Please enter your ratings in the PECs scoring sheet. The number in parenthesis
corresponds to the questionnaire item number. Notice that the item numbers are listed
consecutively for each column. Perform the addition and subtraction as indicated in each
row to compute for each PEC.
Rating of Statements Score PECs
+ + - + + 6 = Opportunity
+ + - + + 6 = Persistence
+ + + - + 6 = Commitment to
+ + + - + 6 = Demand for Efficiency
- + + + + 6 = Risk taking
- + + + + 6 = Goal setting
+ - + + + 6 = Information seeking
- + + + + 6 = Persuasion &
- + + + + 6 = Self-confidence
- - - + + 18 = Correction Factor
The PECs Scoring Sheet with Correction Factor
The Correction Factor is used to provide a more accurate assessment of the PECs of
each respondent. If the total score of items 11, 22, 33, 44, and 55 is 20 or greater, then the
total score on the ten PECs must be corrected. Use the table below to determine the
corrected score.
Subtract the following number from each PECs
Corrected Score Sheet
Opportunity seeking - =
Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) Profile Sheet
Transfer the corrected PECs score to the profile sheet by marking an “X” at the
appropriate point on the horizontal line provided for each PEC category. After plotting your
PECs score, connect all the “Xs” with a heavy line.
A lower score means a ‘weak’ performance and a higher score translates to a
‘strong’ performance on a particular competency. A ‘weak’ performance should be
regarded as a challenge or an opportunity for improvement rather than a cause for
worry. Improving a competency entails enough determination, correct practice and
strategies, and time for maturation.
Business Environment and Market
The study of the business environment in a particular location has far-reaching and
long-term effects on a small or micro enterprise’s viability. In fact, business ideas and
opportunities are partly shaped or determined by the business location. Unless it is possible
0 5 10 15
to migrate to more favorable locations, the ideas and opportunities for business will
oftentimes be delimited to the surrounding areas.
The business environment consists of both the tangible and intangible factors that
affect either the external or internal business operations. They may include the land area
available for economic zones, the physical layout and barriers such as rivers, parks or lakes,
and building obstructions as well as the transportation network; all of which are considered
tangible factors. They also include the demography of clients and suppliers, the competitors
in the locale/area and the available technology for production. The intangible factors, on the
other hand, include the sub-culture, industry trends, economic and government activity or the
political situations in the area.
Natural and Physical Environment. This concerns the physical location of a business’
store. The natural environment also pertains to the natural and man-made structures that
may enhance the beauty of the location, such as a park or a sea front view, or serve as
barrier to the location, such as a dump site or high rise structures that obstruct a view. The
living condition in an area also serves as a standard for the ambience you want to create for
your store.
There is also a phenomenon referred to as clustering, where a particular type of
product is offered within the same area. For instance, most guitar shops are clustered along
the intersection of V. Mapa and Aurora Avenue in Metro Manila; Filipino craft stores crowd
the area under the Quiapo Bridge; or car accessories are found in Banawe area.
The key word to have in mind when scanning the physical environment is the visibility
of your intended store to the potential clients.
Culture Sub-culture,
Demography. This pertains to the number of people living in the area, their age,
gender, socio-economic status, family size, religion and even growth trends. These are
invaluable information that can help entrepreneurs in matching their product to the target
market, in deciding for the marketing strategy, pricing and product packaging among others.
Culture. Culture or sub-culture, being the totality of the way of life, ideas and
customs of a set of people or society, primarily influence the types of products that are
acceptable to a particular locality. For example, the influence of the Japanese culture gave
rise to minimalist designs. A sub-culture also shapes the ‘emotional’ environment of an
area. For instance, the feeling of ‘fear’ for a specific location may serve as a barrier for a
business; a place where one does not feel safe because of the prevalence of crime will
discourage entrepreneurs.
Changes in the lifestyle, which is brought about by changes in the population
demography and the economy, also affect a business. These lifestyle changes may be the
increase of women’s participation in the world of work, change in buying patterns and shift in
Government Regulations. The laws and policies of the national and local
government units also influence the business operations. Some examples of policies that
directly affect entrepreneurs are the imposition or removal of taxes for products, the
establishment of economic zones and assistance in product labeling and packaging of
products. In addition, improvement of facilities and roads improve transportation network
that facilitates transfer of products from one area to another or promotes accessibility for
Economy. This pertains to the management of resources and study of the system
of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. A country’s economy
influences both the entrepreneurs and consumers as it relates to the financial matters of
business like taxes and interest rates and to the quality of life, cost of utilities and services,
among others. Even small scale entrepreneurs must learn to study economic indicators to
improve business forecasts, such as when to buy certain materials and supplies, when to
open a store or introduce new products based on consumer spending, or when to hire
employees. Some examples of economic indicators include the (a) Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) which increases when a country’s economy is doing good; (b) Unemployment rate
which indicates that more unemployed people usually signal an economy getting worse; and
(c) Price Indexes and Inflation rates which determine the buying power of consumers.
Technology. Technological changes are inventions based on the application of
science that create new product or process improvements. Some examples of technological
changes are mobile tools that enable online connection, new business tools for analysis and
database, social networks and modern, digital equipment. These advances in technology
result to efficiency and productivity at a lesser cost. It can be observed that sending
message through e-mail provides a cheaper and faster means compared to hand-delivered
mails (snail mails). An entrepreneur can benefit from technological changes by identifying
the appropriate technological solution available in the area or locale.
Spotting and Identifying Business Opportunities
Spotting business opportunities is one of the most essential aspects of
entrepreneurship. An entrepreneur must have a keen eye for identifying opportunities that
can potentially turn into a good product or business venture. At the same time, an
entrepreneur should also know which opportunities to drop and which ones to develop.
Idea Generation
The first step in identifying a good business opportunity is to look for many
opportunities. This is called the idea generation phase (SERDEF, 2007). The following are
good sources of business ideas (Histrich, Peters, & Shepard, 2008; Looser &Schlapfer,
2. Everyday experiences, travel, and adventures
3. Suggestions from family members and friends
4. Problems that need solutions
5. Problems with existing products
6. Books, magazines, news
Screening Business Ideas
Once you have generated a number of business opportunities and ideas, the next
step is to select and screen these. Though there can be many ways to do this, a good way to
proceed is to screen your ideas based on 1) your personality and personal preferences and
2) the characteristics of a good business (SERDEF, 2007).
Consider the following criteria:
a. Personal Preference
c. Work Experience
d. Support from family and friends
At this point, it must be quite clear why an environment scanning of an area
considered as business site is helpful for the entrepreneur. In fact, the impact of the
factors in the business environment does not only include the business operation
but is even relevant at the start of the venture – during the business idea generation
and opportunity identification stage. A concise guide on how to spot and identify
business opportunities are provided in the following section.
Keep reading!
a. Demand for Product
c. Profitability
SWOT Analysis
Once you have chosen your business idea, the next step is to conduct a SWOT
analysis in order to determine the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of
your potential business. This step will help you improve your business of choice and prepare
for challenges. The table will help you differentiate among these four features.
Table 1 SWOT Analysis
tools when you are ready to think of your next
business ideas!