Home Fire Sprinklers Medford Fire & Life Safety Division

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  • Home Fire Sprinklers Medford Fire & Life Safety Division
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  • The Fire Problem Statistics National Each day 7 people die in United States home fires Each year on average over 2,500 people die in the United States and more than 13,000 people are injured in home fires Fires kill more people in the United States each year than all natural disasters combined Children and the elderly are most at risk Oregon From 2004 to 2013 there were: nearly 350 fire deaths more than 2,500 injuries Source: NFPA
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  • The Fire Problem Statistics Firefighter Casualties National Approx. 100 firefighter fatalities per year Many of these are related to residential structure fires An estimated 81,070 firefighter injuries occur annually in the U.S. The majority of firefighter injuries (87%) occur in structure fires Source: UFSA
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  • Medford Residential Fire Statistics Statistics Local In the 25-year period between 1989 and 2013, Medford experienced 22 fire related deaths that occurred inside of structures located on residential properties. Most fire deaths are caused from smoke inhalation and occur between midnight and 8:00am Each fire tragedy effects family, friends, firefighters, and the community Source: NFPA
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  • Medford Residential Fire Deaths 20-Year Study 13 in single family homes 3 in duplexes 2 in multi-family homes 4 in structures associated with residences (2 in a garage and 2 in a shed) Conclusion: 17 of our citizen tragic fire deaths could have been avoided if the homes were protected with fire sprinkler systems 59.1% 31.8%
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  • Medford Fire Injuries Medford Fire Injuries In the last 13 years, 76 people were injured from fires, many of these close calls
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  • Medford Residential Fire Statistics (5-year average) Structure Fires Per Year 82 per year Homes vs. Multi-family 80% one and two family 20% multi-family Direct Property Losses Per Year: $1.1 million per year
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  • Vulnerable Populations Source: NFPA Children Children under the age of 5 are 1 times more likely to die in a home fire as the general public Young children often hide during fires or need assistance Children may sleep through a sounding smoke alarm Children have reduced reaction times
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  • Vulnerable Populations Source: NFPA Older Adults The elderly are nearly 3 times more likely to die in a home fire as the general public Older adults may suffer from reduced sensory abilities such as smell, touch, vision, and hearing Inability to smell smoke Inability to feel if something is hot Inability to see fires or notice fire causes Inability to hear smoke alarms or fire sounds Older adults may suffer from disabilities Older adults have reduced reaction times
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  • Why Do We Still Lose People in Home Fires? Why Do We Still Lose People in Home Fires? Safe Window of Escape Time Studies have shown that the average safe window of escape time has been reduced from 17 minutes in the 1970s to as little as three minutes currently. This change is attributed to the widespread use of hydrocarbons (petroleum products) in modern furniture, such as plastics and polyurethane foams. These newer fuels cause more rapid fire growth. Smoke and products of combustion from these fires become deadly in a matter of just a few minutes. People are dying because they simply do not wake up or cannot get out in time. Source: NIST
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  • Why Do We Still Lose People in Home Fires? Why Do We Still Lose People in Home Fires? Some Would Say Smoke Alarms are Enough They may not provide an early enough warning for everybody to escape todays fast moving home fires Smoke alarms were present and operated in 40% of home fire deaths There are maintenance issues 37% of fire deaths were in homes with missing smoke alarms 23% of fire deaths were in homes where smoke alarms were inoperable Source: NFPAs Smoke Alarms in U.S. Home Fires, March 2014
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  • Smoke Alarms and Children Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35cYfR1PgZw
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  • Furnishings & Fuel Loads Heat Release Rates (HRR) (Btu/sec) Small wastebasket 4-142 TV set 114-275 Cotton mattress 38-921 Polyurethane mattress 768-2495 (+271-2025%) Cotton easy chair 275-351 Polyurethane easy chair 1281-1888 (+466-538%) Polyurethane sofa 2960 Armchair (modern) 332-711 Recliner(synthetic padding/covering) 474-949 Christmas tree, dry 474-617 Pool of gasoline (2 quarts on concrete) 949 Living room or bedroom fully involved 2846-9487 Source: NFPA 921; Kirks Fire Investigation
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  • 1970s vs. Current Fuel Loads 1970s vs. Current Fuel Loads Source: UL
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  • Total Time to Firefighting Intervention (Minutes) Fire Timeline Ignition0 Alarm-Discovery1 Evacuation1 911 call1 Dispatch Time1 Turnout Time1.5 Drive Time5 Setup Time1 Fighting Fire 11.5
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  • The Facts - Flashover Residents Do Not Survive Flashover Flashover is caused when a fire produces enough radiant heat in a room to ignite all of the combustible items within the room simultaneously Flashover can occur in as little as 3-4 minutes Conditions can become fatal in about the time to flashover Most victims in post-flashover fires are found remote from the room of origin Source: NIST
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  • Firefighters Do Not Survive Flashover Charring of modern PPE fabrics >572 o F 2 10% of firefighter deaths are a result of rapid fire development The Facts - Flashover
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  • The Facts Lightweight Construction The Facts Lightweight Construction Firefighter Safety Hazards Lightweight Construction Began to appear 25 years ago Vulnerable to fire conditions Times to reach structural failure 35-60 percent shorter Sources: UL Tests, NFPA Fire Sprinkler Initiative
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  • Typical Fire Scenario w/o Fire Sprinklers 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 Time Line (minutes) You are awakened by the smoke detector A small fire starts in your home The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation & applies 250 gpm per hose to fire areas. Windows are broken and holes are cut in the roof to vent fire gases and smoke. Smoke reaches the smoke detector Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. Smoke begins to layer down Ceiling temp. reaches 1,000 degrees, visibility is reduced to zero Ceiling temp reaches 1,400 degrees. Flashover occurs engulfing all contents of the fire room and extending fire throughout home You investigate and find a fire You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911 You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept. The fire dept. responds Severe fire damage results. Extensive water is used for firefighting suppression efforts. Average time of displacement...6 months to a year. Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
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  • Marble Mountain Tests
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  • What If Homes were Sprinklered?
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  • Typical Fire Scenario with Sprinklers 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 Time Line (minutes) You are awakened by the smoke detector A small fire starts in your home The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation and limits water damage by shutting down the water supply to the sprinkler system. The fire department then assists with initial clean-up operations. Smoke reaches the smoke detector You investigate and find a fire You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911 You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept. The fire dept. responds Average time of displacement from home...1-2 days. Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. The sprinkler head over the fire activates Fire is controlled or completely extinguished. Sprinkler head continues to spray water at 15 gpm. Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
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  • What If Homes were Sprinklered? Model Building Codes: National Standard of Care National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Required fire sprinklers in all new homes in 2005 International Code Council (ICC) Required fire sprinklers in all new homes in 2009 State Adoptions of Model Codes CA required fire sprinklers in all new homes 2011 First ordinance in San Clemente 1970s 153 ordinances when starting to talk about statewide requirement 4 years later passed a statewide requirement MD required fire sprinklers in all new homes in 2011 Where Are We at in Oregon? Statewide multi-family requirement (2010) for new construction (3+ units) No statewide requirement to protect one and two family homes
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  • Towards a Safer Community Occupant Safety Sprinklers reduce civilian fire deaths by 83% Sprinklers reduce civilian fire injury medical costs by 53% Sprinklers reduce civilian fire injury total costs by 41% Firefighter Safety Sprinklers are responsible for an estimated 65% reduction in firefighter fireground injuries Property Losses Sprinklers reduce direct property damage per fire by 69% Source: Fire Sprinkler Initiative Home Structure Fire Loss in the U.S. and Fire Sprinkler Impact
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  • Proven Case Studies Residential Fire Sprinklers Scottsdale, AZ (15 Year Study) 1 Ordinance enacted in 1986 Over 50% of houses sprinklered No fire deaths in sprinklered homes 13 people died in non-fire sprinklered homes Over $20 million in property lossprevented Average fire loss was: $2,166 in fire sprinklered residences $45,019 in non-fire sprinklered residen