Homeostasis, Stress and Adaptation_ppt2a

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homeostasis

Text of Homeostasis, Stress and Adaptation_ppt2a

HOMEOSTASIS, STRESS AND ADAPTATIONPREPARED BY: MR. VAL L. RAMILO

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MR. VAL L. RAMILO RN

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES Relate the principles of internal constancy, homeostasis,

stress and adaptation to the concept of steady state Identifying the significance of the bodys compensatory

mechanisms in promoting adaptation and maintaining the steady state Identify physiologic and psychosocial stressors Compare the sympathetic-adrenal medullary- and

hypothalamic-pituitary response to stress

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TERMINOLOGIES Adaptation a change or alteration designed to assist in

adaptation to a new situation or environment. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) a hormone

produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates the secretion of cortisol and other hormones by the adrenal cortex. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) a hormone secreted by the

posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that constricts blood vessels, elevates blood pressure and reduces the excretion of urine

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Catecholamines group of amines that serve as

neurotransmitters Coping the cognitive and behavioral strategies used to

manage the stressors that tax a persons resources

Dysplasia bizarre cell growth, differ in size, shape or

arrangement from other cells of the same tissue type. Glucocorticoids the group of steroid hormones, such as

cortisol, that are produced by the adrenal cortex; they are involved in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism and have anti-inflammatory.

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Gluconeogenesis The formation of glucose by the liver

from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and the glycerol portion of fats. Guided imagery the mindful use of a word, phrase, or

visual image to achieve relaxation or direct attention away from uncomfortable sensations or situations. Homeostasis A steady state within the body; the stability

of the internal environment

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Hyperplasia an increase in the number of new cells of a

tissue Hypoxia inadequate supply of oxygen to the cell Inflammation a localized, protective reaction of tissue to

injury, irritation, or infection, manifested by pain, redness, heat, swelling, and sometimes of loss of function.

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Metaplasia A cell transformation in which there is

conversion of one type of mature cell into another type of cell Negative feedback feedback that decreases the output of a system Positive feedback feedback that increases the output of a system Steady state a stable condition that does not change over time, or when change in one direction is balanced by change in an opposite direction. Stress a disruptive condition that occurs in response to adverse influences from the internal and external environments

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ADAPTIVE & MALADAPTIVE ADAPTIVE - having a positive effect MALADAPTIVE having a negative effect The defense mechanism determine difference between

adaptive and maladaptive.

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FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Compensatory mechanism adjusting internal conditions

to promote a normal or steady state

Ex. Rapid breathing (hyperpnea) compensate for oxygen deficit and excess lactic acid accumulated in the muscle tissue.

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FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Pathophysiologic process when injury occurs Ex. HEART FAILURE Body reacts by retaining sodium

and water thereby increasing venous pressure which worsens the conditions of the client. Gives rise to symptoms

nurses should determine the

existence of a problem and guide in planning the appropriate action.

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STEADY STATE Internal and external environment information and

matter continuously exchanged. The goal of the bodys subsystem is to produce a dynamic

balance or steady state FOUR CONCEPTS: CONSTANCY, HOMEOSTASIS, STRESS AND ADAPTATION

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I.CONSTANCY- Claude Bernard 19th century French psychologist

developed the biologic principle Fixty of the internal milieu despite changes in the external environment.- Fluid bathed the cells - Constancy the balanced internal state maintained by

physiologic and biologic process- Principle implied a static process

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II. HOMEOSTASIS Steady state within the body When a change or stress occurs process are initiated to

restore and maintain a dynamic balance When adjustments or compensatory mechanism not

adequate threatened function becomes disordered and dysfunctional process occurs

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Disease is an abnormal variation in the structure or

function of any part of the body. It disrupts function and therefore can limit freedom of action.

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III.STRESS Stress Is a state produced by a change in the

environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damaging to a persons dynamic balance or equilibrium. The nature of stressor is variable

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IV. ADAPTATION A person appraises and copes with changing situations

the desired goal is ADAPTATION or adjustment to the change so that the person is again in equilibrium and has the energy and ability to meet new demands. Is a constant, ongoing process that requires a change in

the structure, function or behavior so that a person is better suited to the environment. Is an individual process each person ahs a varying

abilities to cope or respond.

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The goal of adaptation is optimal wellness Stress and adaptation exist in different level focus on

how groups organizational features are modified to meet the requirements of the social and physical environment in which the group exists. In any system, the desired goals of adaptation are

survival, growth, and reproduction.

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COPING A person appraises and copes with changing situations

the desired goal is ADAPTATION or adjustment to the change so that the person is again in equilibrium and has the energy and ability to meet new demands. This is the process of coping with the stress, a

compensatory process that has physiologic and psychological components.

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TYPE OF STRESSORS Stressor can upset equilibrium Stressor may be defined as an internal or external event

or situation that creates the potential for physiologic, emotional, cognitive, or behavioral changes in an individual

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1. PHYSICAL STRESSOR COLD HEAT CHEMICAL AGENTS

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2. PHYSIOLOGIC STRESSORS PAIN FATIGUE

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3. PYSCHOSOCIAL STRESSOR FEAR

Ex. Fear of failing an examination, losing a job, and waiting for a diagnostic test result. Stressors can also occur as normal life transitions that require some adjustment, such as going from childhood into puberty, getting married, or giving birth.

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CLASSIFICATION OF STRESSORS1. DAY TO DAY FRUSTRATIONS OR HASSLES Includes such common occurrences as getting caught in a traffic jam, experiencing computer downtime, and having an argument with a spouse or roommate. These experiences vary in effect. Ex. Encountering a rainstorm while on vacation evoke a more negative response than it might another time Greater health impact than major life events cumulative effect they have over time. high BP, Palpitations or other Physiologic problems

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2. LARGER GROUPS OF PEOPLE, SOMETIMES EVEN ENTIRE NATION- Include events of history, such as terrorism and war,

experienced either directly in the war zone or indirectly through live news coverage- The demographic, economic, and technological changes

occurring in society

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3. STRESSORS THAT OCCUR LESS FREQUENTLY AND INVOLVE FEWER PEOPLE- Includes the influence of life events such as death, birth,

marriage, divorce and retirement- Includes psychosocial crises life cycle stages of the

human experience - Enduring chronic stressor permanent disability or long term care to a frail elderly.

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DURATION OF STRESSORS AN ACUTE TIME-LIMITED STRESSOR studying for

final examinations A STRESSOR SEQUENCE a series of stressful events that result from an initial event such as job loss or divorce A CHRONIC INTERMITTENT STRESSOR such as

daily hassles A CHRONIC ENDURING STRESSOR THAT PERSISTS

OVER TIME Illness, a disability or poverty.

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STRESS AS A STIMULUS FOR DISEASE Research has revealed that people under constant stress

have a high incidence of psychosomatic disease. Holmes and Rahe developed life events scales that

assign numerical values, called li