How to Perform Prayer

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    How to Perform Prayer (Salat)

    I. The Adhan (call to prayer)and Iqama (call to start the prayer)

    II. The Iqama

    III. The Performance of Prayer

    1. The Early Morning prayer (Salatu-l-Fajr)Act.1Act.2Act.3Act.4Act.5Act.6Act.7Act.8Act.9

    2. The Noon prayer (Salat al-Dhuhr)

    3. The Mid-Afternoon prayer (Salatu-l-Asr)

    4. The Sunset prayer (Salatu-l-Maghrib)

    5. The Evening Prayer (Salatu-l-Isha)

    I. The Adhan (call to prayer)and Iqama (call to start the prayer)

    The adhan is the announcement that the time of a particular prayer has begun. This is done withspecific wording, and for the purpose of calling the people to pray in congregation. It is a

    distinctive feature of Islamic society and its religious practice. It is obligatory for the Muslimsociety to establish it.

    The wording of the Adhan

    Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar,Allah is the Most Great. (repeated 4 times)Ash-hadu an la ilah ella-Allah, Ash-hadu an la ilah ella-Allah,I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah. (twice)Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul-ullah, Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul-ullah,I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. (twice)Haiya alas-Salat, Haiya alas-Salat,Hurry towards prayer. (twice)Haiya alal-Falah, Haiya alal-Falah,Hurry toward success. (twice)Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar.Allah is the Most Great. (twice)La illah illa-Allah None has the right to be worshipped but Allah. (once)

    Note: In the call to prayer for Fajr (the Dawn prayer) the muadhdhin (caller) adds after Haiya alal-

    Falah: As-Salat Khairun minan naum, As-Salat Khairun minan naum, Prayer is better than sleep.

    (twice)

    II. The Iqama

    The iqama is like the adhan but it is announced immediately before the start of obligatory prayer,in order to assemble the people in the mosque in orderly rows.

    The wording of the Iqama

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    Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar.

    Allah is the Most Great. (twice)

    Ash-hadu an la ilah ella-Allah

    I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah. (once)

    Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Rasul-ullah

    I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. (once)

    Haiya alas-Salat

    Hurry towards prayer. (once)Haiya alal-Falah

    Hurry toward success. (once)

    Qad Qamatis-Salat, Qad Qamatis-Salat,

    The time of prayer has come. (twice)

    Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar.

    Allah is the Most Great (twice)

    La illah illa-Allah

    None has the right to be worshipped but Allah. (once)

    It is praiseworthy for one who while hears the adhan to repeat each phrase after the muahdhin,

    except when he says Hurry to prayer and Hurry to success, one should say:

    La hawla ,la Quwwata illa billah There is no power nor ability except by Allah.

    After the adhan, one should ask Allah to bless the Prophet (pbuh) in a low voice, then he should

    make the following dua (supplication):

    Allahuma rabba hadhi-hid da'wah tit-tam-matiwas-sala til qaimati ati Muhammad nil waseelata wal

    fadeelata wabath-hu maqamam an mahmudunil-ladhi wa'ad tahu.

    O Allah, the Lord of this perfect invitation and established prayer, grant Muhammad intercession

    (to You) and honor and raise him to the position of praise on the Day of Judgement, which You

    promised him.

    The Prophet (pbuh) said:

    Whoever supplicates with this dua hearing the adhan will be eligible for my intercession on theDay of Judgement (Bukhari)

    The adhan is an act of worship, and worship should be performed in accordance with the teachings

    of the Prophet (pbuh) without addition or omission.

    Obligatory prayers and sunna prayers

    Besides the obligatory or prescribed five daily prayer (prayers) Muslims are strongly advised toperform the non-obligatory sunna prayers for which they are rewarded; these sunna prayersaccompany the fard, or obligatory prayers, as stated below.

    Table of number of Rakaat of each Prayer

    Prayers Sunna BeforeFard (Obligatory)

    PrayerSunna after

    Fajr (Dawn) 2 2 --

    Dhuhur (Noon) 2+2 4 2

    Asr (Afternoon) 2+2 4 --

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    Maghrib (Sunset) 2 3 2

    Isha (Night) 2 4 2+3 or 1 Witr

    Jumuah (insteadof Dhuhur 2 on

    Friday)

    2 (greeting themosque)

    22 at home or 2+2 in

    the mosque

    III. The Performance of Prayer

    After the worshipper has done the ablution and after the adhan and iqama are said, the prayer isconducted according to the sunna of the Prophet (pbuh) who said to companions:

    Pray as you have seen me praying. (Bukhari),

    Since then, Muslims of all times and places have been performing prayer in the same way of the

    Prophet (pbuh) as illustrated below:

    1. The Early Morning prayer (Salatu-l-Fajr)

    In this prayer two units (rakaat) are offered first as supererogatory (sunna). These are followedby two other units which are obligatory (fard). Both supererogatory and obligatory prayers areoffered in the same manner except that, when declaring the intention, one has to distinguishbetween the two kinds. Following is the description of the fard (obligatory) or sunna (voluntary)prayer.

    Act 1. One stands in reverence and humility, facing the Qiblah, raising his hands up to the ears,and silently intending for Sunat Salati-l-Fajr or Fard Salati-l-Fajr (as the case may be), and says,

    Allahu Akbar.

    This means (to ones self): I intend to offer the supererogatory (or obligatory as the case may be)prayer of the morning; Allah is the Greatest of All. Then he lowers his arms and places the righthand over the left one right below the chest.

    This position of the hands is in accordance with one school of law. Other positions are preferredby other schools. However, these are minor differences and do not affect the validity of theprayer. In fact, all such differences are considered as convenience and facilities rather thanhindrances and restrictions.

    Act 2. He then says in a low voice the following:

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    Subhanaka-l-lahumma wa bihamdik, wa tabaraka-smuk, wa taala Jadduk, wa La Ilaha Ghayruk.Audhu bi-l-lahi mina-sh-shaytani-r-rajeem. Bismi-l-lahi-rah-mani-raheem.

    This means: Glory be to you, O Allah, and Yours is the praise, and blessed is Your name, and

    exalted is Your majesty, and there is no God besides You. I seek the refuge of Allah from the

    condemned devil. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Merciful.

    Act 3. After this, the Fatiha (the opening chapter of the Quran) is recited while standing in thesame position. It runs as follows in transliteration:

    Bismillahir-rah Mani-Rahim,

    Alhamdu Lillahi-rabbil-alamin,

    Ar-rahmanir-rahim, Maliki Yawmaid-din, Iyyaka nabodu

    Wa Iyyka nastain, Ihdinas-Siratal-mustaqim Siratal-lathin Anamta alayhim

    Ghqyril-maghdubi Alayhim Waladallin. Amin.

    The translation of the Fatiha chapter is as follows:

    In the name of Allah, The Beneficent, the Merciful. All Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all worlds,

    the Beneficent, the Merciful. Thee only do we worship, and from Thee only do we seek help. Guide

    us to the right path, the path of those to whom Thou hast been Gracious, not of those who are

    condemned, nor of those who are misguided. Amen.

    Then any portion of the Quran which the devotee may have learned by heart is recited, whether itis a short chapter, or a few verses.

    Act 4.Then he says: Allahu Akbar. (Allah is the Greatest) and lowers his head and torso downat a right angle, places the palms of his hands on the knees and says in a low voice:

    Subhana Rabbiya-l-Azeem

    (Glory to my Lord the Great, repeated three times.) This is called ruku. After that the standing

    position is resumed with these words:

    Sami a-l-ahu Liman Hamidah; Rabbana laka-l-Hamd

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    (Allah accepts any who are thankful to Him; Our Lord, praise be to you). When saying this, the

    hands remain on the sides.

    The Prophet (pbuh) said:

    Perform ruku until you come to rest in ruku, then rise up until you are standing [fully] upright.

    Then perform sajdah until you come to rest in sajdah (Bukhari)

    Act 5.The worshipper then says: Allah Akbar, prostrating himself with the toes of both feet, bothknees, both hands and the forehead touching the ground. The Prophet (pbuh) said: When youperform sajdah, place your hands down, and raise your elbows up. (Muslim) This is the positionof sujud and is accompanied by these words:

    Subhana Rabbiya-l-Ala

    (Glory to my Lord the Most High, repeated three times.)

    Act 6. With the utterance of Allah Akbar comes the julus, a short rest in a sitting posture. Theouter side of the left foot and the toes of the right one (which are in an erect position) touch theground and the two hands are placed on the knees.

    After this a second prostration (sujud) is repeated in the same way, with the same utterances asthe first one. This completes one unit (rakaat) of the prayer.

    Act 7. After the first unit the worshipper rises, saying Allahu Akbar, to assume a standingposition for the second unit and recites the opening chapter (the Fatiha) followed by a Quranic

    passage as in the first unit.

    Act 8. When he has finished the second bowing and the two prostrations in the same way as thefirst, he takes a sitting position as in julus and recites the tashahhud with its two parts. (A+B)

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    Transliteration of Tashahhud

    A. At-tahyiyatu lilllahi, wassala-watu wattayybatu, Assalamu alaka ayyuhan-nabiyyu warahmatullahi wabarakatuhu. Assalamu alayna wa ala ibadillahis-salihin. Ash-hadu an la-ilaha-illallah wa ash-hadu anna Mohammedan abduhu wa Rasuluhu,

    B. Allahumma sali ala Muhammad wa ala ali Muhammad kama salyata ala Ibrahim, wa ala aliIbrabih, innaka Hamidun Majid, wa barik ala Muhammad wa ala ali Muhammad kma barkt alaIbrahim wa ala ali Ibrahim innak Hamid Majid.

    Meaning of Tashahud (The Declaration of Testimony of Faith)

    (Recited while sitting after the end of the second rakaat of prayer.)

    1. (All) greetings, prayers and all good things are due to Allah, the Almighty. Peace be untoyou, oh Prophet of Allah. The mercy and the blessings of Allah be unto us, and unto therighteous slave servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worshipbut Allah alone, and I bear witness that Mohammed is the slave/servant and messengerof Allah.

    2. Oh Allah! Shower blessings upon Mohammed and upon the family of Mohammed as youshowered blessings upon Abraham and the family of Abraham. And grant favors toMohammed and to the family of Mohammed as you granted favors to Abraham and to

    the family of Abraham in this world. You are the Praiseworthy and Glorious.

    In the final tashahud, one must seek refuge with Allah, the Almighty, from the torture of the

    hellf...