How To Teach and Assess Reading For Junior High School Students.

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How To Teach and Assess Reading For Junior High School Students Slide 2 Slide 3 Why Do We Read? What kind of reader are you? ? To kill time To solve a problem For pleasure For myselfFor parents For work/study For information For tests Slide 4 5 Ts What kind of teacher am I ? Teach Task Talk Text Time Slide 5 Competence Indicators 3-2-1 Can identify the letters in cursive writing style. 3-2-2 Can identify the pronunciation and meaning of unfamiliar words by consulting a dictionary. 3-2-3 Can comprehend common signs and graphs written in English. 3-2-4 Can read aloud short passages and simplified stories with appropriate rhythm and intonation patterns. 3-2-5 Can comprehend the main ideas of textbooks passages. 3-2-6 Can comprehend the main ideas and plots of dialogues, short passages, letters, stories, and playlets. 3-2-7 Can guess correct word meaning or make proper inferences based on pictures, illustrations, or contextual clues. 3-2-8 Can identify the essential elements of a story: background, main characters, major incidents, endings, etc. 3-2-9 Can read articles involving different genres and topics written in simple English. Slide 6 Before We Teach Use sight words and they can read almostsight words read almost Start checking from Fluency Comprehension Fluency Letter-sound Phonemic awareness YES NO YES Fluency intervention Accuracy or Proficiency Phonics intervention Phonics Accuracy or Proficiency Slide 7 Poor Readers Those who either lack of decoding skills or comprehension strategies can take: remedial learning programs cooperative learning Repeat oral reading Reread familiar text Listen to model fluent reading paired reading Slide 8 Reading Model Bottom-up Model Also known as: part to whole model Focus on issues of rapid processing of text and word identification. Use word by word, phrase by phrase, decoding of the text. Slide 9 Typical Start with word-by-word decoding and translation (using controlled vocabulary) Followed by comprehension 5-W Qs, most of which involved direct-lifting answers End with checking answers with little or no explanation repeated practice = teaching = good performance in comprehension??? Slide 10 Students Mind Slide 11 Reading Model Top-down Model Also known as: inside-out model concept-driven model whole to part model Focus on issues of background knowledge (schema), mental process (short-term memory) and psycholinguistic guessing games. Slide 12 Benefits Help Ss to Activate their prior knowledge Make predictions Generate Qs, answer Qs Draw inferences Monitor their comprehension Seek clarification when confused Create visual imagery Make summaries Evaluate what they have read Slide 13 Reading Model Interactive Model bottom-up + top-down skill-based + strategy-based bottom-uptop-down interactiveinteractive Slide 14 Example: Vocabulary Vocabulary can be taught directly and indirectly Direct instruction includes giving word definitions and pre-teaching of vocabulary before reading a text. Indirect methods refer to incidental vocabulary learning, mentioning, and guessing. Slide 15 Reading Materials Reader-based Text-based Slide 16 Reading Materials Intensive reading Grammar translation Comprehension questions and language work Skills and strategies Extensive reading Read aloud Sustained silent reading Independent reading Pleasure reading Slide 17 Reading Materials Novels News Ads Stories Songs Comics Jokes Riddles Plays Poems Slide 18 Reading Materials Textbooks activities /tasks/games stories/poems /plays other resources: supplementary /grammar/wor ksheets guided writing/free writing/worksheets/projects/portfolio input output life experiences artistic experiences intellectual development Slide 19 How To Teach Use various activities Use different models Use different skills Use different strategies Use visualizing Use monitoring Keep students busy Slide 20 Three Stages Pre-reading & activities During-reading & activities Post-reading & activities Slide 21 Before Reading Lead-in : warm up discussion / brain-storming prediction Predicting from title, pictures, or first sentence Predicting from a key illustration Predicting from pre-questions Predicting from others questions Slide 22 During Reading skimming and scanning skimming is reading rapidly in order to get a general overview of the material. That is, to catch the whole picture and the main idea. scanning is reading rapidly in order to find specific facts. That is, to obtain specific information. While skimming tells you what general information is within a section, scanning helps you locate a particular fact. Skimming is like snorkeling, and scanning is more like pearl diving. Slide 23 Skimming How to skim: * Read the title. * Read the introduction or the first paragraph. * Read the first sentence of every other paragraph. * Read any headings and sub-headings. * Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs. * Notice any italicized or boldface words or phrases. * Read the summary or last paragraph. Slide 24 Scanning How to scan: * State the specific information you are looking for. * Try to anticipate how the answer will appear and what clues you might use to help you locate the answer. For example, if you were looking for a certain date, you would quickly read the paragraph looking only for numbers. * Use headings and any other aids that will help you identify which sections might contain the information you are looking for. * Selectively read and skip through sections of the passage. Slide 25 Lets Practice Object: Students will search and skim for answers to improve test-taking strategies. Activity: 1.Tell students to relax eyes and only look for things they need. 2.Read the questions and highlight the keywords. 3.Number the paragraphs. 4.Circle the unfamiliar words and guess from the context. 5.Read the passages and highlight the keywords. 6.Have students answer Q1. 7.Ask students what the keyword they will scan for to find the answer to Q 2. 8.Continue doing the exercises until students are ready to continue on their own. 9.Have students share with neighbors, turn and talk. 10.Ask some students to share with the whole class. Slide 26 Guessing & Inference guessing : to understand meanings of unknown/unfamiliar words Through context clues By using roots, prefixes and suffixes inference : to infer hidden information through the text Rereading for details Pause and predict Summarizing the text Slide 27 Tips During-teaching : modeled reading shared reading silent reading reading aloud Q & A acting out pause & guessing Cooperativ e learning is ! Give instructions on the test sheets like . Slide 28 Analyzing Structures Article Structure: introduction : revealing a whole picture / the main idea (skimming) body/ development : telling more details to support the whole with groups in common linking with transition words (scanning, guessing) conclusion : emphasizing the main idea in other words (inference) Slide 29 Analyzing Structures Paragraph Structure: topic sentence: revealing the main idea detail sentences: presenting details to support the main idea concluding sentence: repeating the main idea in other words Slide 30 Mind Mapping Slide 31 After Reading Wrap-up : Story innovation / Retelling Innovation on the ending Wanted posters Story map Comics Time lines Text reconstruction Reflection Slide 32 Readers Theater Slide 33 Teaching Reading with Multimedia Self-access CD-ROMs Software programs Web-based courses and training programs Teach kids to read and help those who struggle Slide 34 Useful Websites OXFORD Teacher Training Slide 35 Useful Websites Guided reading stories & interactive games Slide 36 Useful Websites Slide 37 Slide 38 Online practice reading tests Reading comprehension connection IWill Reading comprehension worksheets Search for materials Search sentences for you Taiwan Test Central Lets strategize! Learning Upgrade Free English Video Lesson Slide 39 Why Using Reading Assessment Teachers use assessments in reading to make sure students are making measurable progress. Students must make sense of sounds, letters and words in text to become fully independent readers. Students should be able to read a wide variety of materials, both fiction and non-fiction, with comprehension. Reading assessments evaluate whether students meet these criteria. Slide 40 Reading Assessment Diagnosis Slide 41 Reading Assessment Diagnosis Slide 42 Reading Assessment Reading tests Comprehension questions Detail questions Following directions questions Main idea questions Inference Sequence Slide 43 Reading Assessment Alternative assessment Projects Tasks Journals Portfolios Diaries and logs Dramas/Plays/RT Checklists and rating scales Group work evaluation Self-evaluation Authentic assessments Performance assessments Slide 44 Students Comics Slide 45 Students Picture Books Slide 46 Students PPT Slide 47 More About Reading Grabe(2004) (implications for reading instruction from reading research) (ensure fluency in word recognition) (emphasize the learning of vocabulary: Electronic dictionaries, Multimedia glossing) (activate background knowledge) (ensure acquisition of linguistic knowledge and general comprehension skills) (teach recognition of text structures and discourse organization) (promote development of strategic readers rather than mechanical application of strategy checklists) (promote extensive reading) rate (build reading fluency and rate) (develop intrinsic motivation for reading) (contribute to a coherent curriculum for student learning) Slide 48 More About Reading Day and Bamford's (2002) (top ten principles for teaching extensive reading) (the reading material is easy) (a variety of reading material on a wide range of topics must be available) (learners choose what they want to read) (learners read as much as possible) (the purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding) (reading is its own reward) (reading speed is usually faster rather than slower) (reading is individual and silent) (teachers orient and guide their students) (the teacher is a role model of a reader) Slide 49 Slide 50 Thanks for listening! Winnie Yuan


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