Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
by Dean Pirera
Mac OS X
for os x leopard
How to Use
Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
First Published in NSW, Australia 2008 by:
PO Box 767 Byron Bay, NSW 2481 Australia
National Library of Australia
Pirera, Dean Andrew.
How to Use Mac OS X Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Mac OS - Handbooks, manuals etc. 2. Electronic data processing - Keyboarding -
Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Copyright Dean Pirera 20087. All rights reserved.
The terms Apple, Macintosh, Mac, OS X, Leopard, Tiger, Panther, Adobe, Microsoft, Finder, Mail, iLife, iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iTunes, iWeb, Garageband, Safari, Mail, Windows, Windows
Explorer are trademarks of their respective owners.
DISCLAIMERInformation has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. However, because of
the possibility of human or mechanical error by our sources, Dean Pirera Byron IT does not guarantee the accuracy or adequacy of any information. Whilst every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this Book, Dean Pirera Byron IT is not responsible for errors
or omissions, or for damages or loss resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
Prepress and printing by Flawless Imaging Australia
Graphic design and layout by Marcia Owen and Dean Pirera
iiiTable of Contents | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
1-2 About This Book1 Keyboard Shortcuts1 Some Quick Theory1-2 Understanding Symbols2 Included In This Guide2 Acknowledgements3-8 Key Descriptions3 Types of Keys3-4 Character Keys4-5 Modifier Keys5-6 Arrow Keys6-8 Function Keys9 Keyboard Symbols11-16 Accents & Special Characters11 Accent Codes (for vowels)11 Other Foreign Characters12 Mathematical Symbols12 Currency Symbols13 Punctuation Symbols13 Miscellaneous Characters14 Character Palette17-18 Troubleshooting Keys
19-34 OS X21-24 Getting around in OS X25-28 Special Features29-34 Finder
41-44 Address Book
Table of Contents
iv Table of Contents | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
57-80 iLife 0859-62 iPhoto63-68 iWeb69-72 iMovie73-76 iDVD77-80 GarageBand
1Introduction - About This Book | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
This book shows you how to use the keyboard instead of your mouse to efficiently operate your Apple Macintosh computer. Different key combinations called keyboard shortcuts provide fast ways to initiate different actions. Utilising keyboard shortcuts allows you to move simply and quickly on your Mac.
Some Quick Theory
This book is written exclusively for Mac OS X. Mac OS X means Macintosh Operating System Version 10 (there were nine other versions before this one) and it is the name given to the underlying software that makes your Apple computer work.
There are two basic ways to give an instruction on your Mac. One is through pressing the keys on the keyboard and the other is by moving and clicking the mouse. This book guides you through hundreds of ways to command your Mac by pressing the keys.
Note: Using a non-standard Apple keyboard or altering your default keyboard shortcut settings may cause some keyboard shortcuts to not function correctly.
All keyboard shortcuts included in this book are current with the latest Mac operating system, OS X 10.5 Leopard.
When you click the top menu bar on your screen, for example File, you will see a vertical menu drop down displaying various words and
About This Book
2 Introduction - About This Book | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
phrases. These words and phrases are commands. To the right of some of these commands are groups of symbols and characters. Two examples are O or S.
This notation is Apple shorthand for keyboard shortcuts - each shortcut refers to a specific command.
Its important you learn what each symbol represents so that you know which keys to press when applying a shortcut. This is further explained on later pages in this book (see Key Descriptions page 3 and Apple Keyboard Symbols table, page 9).
Included In This Guide
This meticulously compiled reference guide covers core Mac OS X applications and contains over 1,000 quick shortcuts. Keyboard shortcuts have been laid out in clear and precise information tables providing a solid framework for learning.
Descriptions of all keys are included and there is a section on accents, special characters and troubleshooting keys. Each keyboard shortcut in this book has been tested and checked.
Using keyboard shortcuts builds fast navigation skills and helps you gain confidence on your Mac. Applying even just a few of these shortcuts can save you time and money. This book will help you understand your Mac better and harness its full potential.
How to Use Mac OS X Keyboard Shortcuts is the most comprehensive shortcuts reference guide of its kind available and is highly recommended for any Mac user.
My sincere thanks to Marcia Owen, Clayton Lloyd, Mark Harris, Desiree Delaloye, Serge Benhayon, Gail Fuller, John Saunders, Cameron Bell and Phil Wallace for their input into the design, editing and proofing of this book and above of all for their honest feedback throughout the entire project.
3Introduction - Key Descriptions | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Types of Keys
There are four kinds of keys: Character keys, Modifier keys, Arrow keys, and Function keys.
The following descriptions explain these keys in detail including what the symbols marked on your Apple keyboard and within Apple file menus actually mean.
A character key sends a character to the computer. When the user holds down a modifier key, it alters the meaning of the character key being pressed.
Character keys include letters, numbers, punctuation, the Space Bar, and nonprinting characters Tab, Enter, Return, Delete (or Backspace), Clear, and Esc (Escape).
In text, pressing the Space Bar enters a space between characters.
When full keyboard access is turned on (see Full Keyboard Navigation with Universal Access & VoiceOver on page 22), pressing the Space Bar selects the item that currently has the keyboard navigation focus (the equivalent of clicking the mouse button).
The Tab key is used to insert a tab character when typing text. It can also advance you to the next item, window, box, option or menu within an application. You may need to test this one out to get the complete hang of it.
4 Introduction - Key Descriptions | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
The Enter key, performs almost exactly the same function as the Return key. It does have some subtle differences but these go beyond the scope of this book. See Return key.
Pressing the Return key moves the cursor to the next line when using any sort of text editor or processor like Mail or Word. It is also used to select the highlighted button in a dialog box menu.
This is the Backward Delete or Backspace key and on some keyboards is marked as a left pointing arrow or just delete. This key moves the cursor one position backwards, deleting the preceding character.
Pressing the Clear button in some applications will remove the selected data. For example, in Excel, it clears the data within a cell. This button is rarely used and is not found on laptops.
The Escape key, which is marked esc on most keyboards, can be used to dismiss pop up windows. In many cases, pressing it does nothing. However, it can sometimes get you out of trouble by making the computer go back or escape to a previous screen.
Modifier keys alter the way other keystrokes or mouse clicks are interpreted. When the user holds down a modifier key, it alters the meaning of the character key being pressed or what the mouse does when clicked.
8 Introduction - Key Descriptions | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
This is not a key. Back-tab is accessed by holding down Shift whilst pressing the Tab key. It reverses the direction of normal tabbing. See also Tab key.
This is not a key. Mouse click in this book refers to the mouse button (or left button on a standard 2 button mouse).
The num lock key pertains only to laptops. This key is a toggle key and is also labelled F6.
When num lock is on, the embedded keypad is activated. If you look closely at the laptop keyboard you will see small numbers and symbols painted on corners of 17 of the middle-right keys.
Picture 1: laptop keyboard
Toggling A Key
A toggle key is any key which turns a specific function on or off by pressing it once. num lock and caps lock are examples of toggle keys. When a toggle key is pressed on, a green light called a led usually appears on or near that key indicating that its function is active. When pressed again the led switches off and that keys function is deactivated.
9Introduction - Keyboard Symbols | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Symbol Key Name Keyboard Label Command or
Option option or alt
Control control or ctrl
Backward Delete delete or
Forward Delete delete or del or
fn Fn Key fn
F1, F2, F3 ... F16 Function F1, F2, F3 ... F16
Page Up page up or pg up
Page Down page down or pg dn
Back-Tab no key
Help help (or ins)
Mouse click no key - mouse click button (left click on a two-button mouse)
(not applicable) Clear clear
(not applicable) Caps Lock caps lock
(not applicable) Number Lock num lock
space Space bar (no label)
11Introduction - Accents & Special Characters | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Accents &Special Characters
From time to time you may need to use more uncommon characters or symbols, for example , , , and . The following tables list all special, foreign, mathematical and miscellaneous characters and symbols available through the keyboard.
Accent Codes (for vowels)Letter Accent Type Shortcut Acute E let go then press any vowel
Circumflex I let go then press any vowel
Grave ` let go then press any vowel
Tilde N let go then press a, n or o(only works with a, n & o)
Umlaut U let go then press any vowel
Examples:To type hold down then the I key. Release both keys, then type the lower case e.To type hold down then the N key. Release both keys, then type the upper case O.
Other Foreign CharactersCharacter Explanation Shortcut
Upside-down exclamation mark
German Sharp/Double S S
Upside-down question mark /
AE ligature(caps / lower case)
Nordic A ring(caps / lower case)
A or A
French C cedile(caps / lower case)
C or C
17Introduction - Troubleshooting Keys | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
The table below lists shortcut keys for troubleshooting your Mac or accessing it in different ways. Keep this table handy.
On StartupStart up from a bootable CD Press and hold C during startup
Eject a CD or DVD Hold Mouse button downimmediately after startup
Force the internal hard disk (or first partition) to be the startup device
Press and hold D during startup
Attempt to start up from a compatible network server(NetBoot)
Press and hold N during startup
Force PowerBook to reset the screen Press and hold R during startup
Start up in FireWire Target Disk mode Press and hold T during startup
Force Mac OS X startup Press and hold X during startup
Select startup operating system Press and hold during startup
Start up in Safe Boot mode and temporarily disable login items and non-essential kernel extension files (Mac OS X 10.2 and later)
Press and hold during startup
Start up in Single-User mode (command line) Press and hold S during startup
Start up in Verbose mode Press and hold V during startup
Clear NV RAM Press and hold NV during startup
Boot into open firmware Press and hold OF during startup
Zap PRAM (hold down until second chime) Press and hold PR during startup
Bypass primary startup volume and seek a differentstartup volume (such as a CD or external disk)
Press and hold during startup
When System is RunningForce Quit (Application)
Quit all applications and restart
Force shutdown computer Press and hold the power button on the computer for six seconds
19Chapter 1 - OS X | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
20 Chapter 1 - OS X | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Organise your Mac with Finder, execute commands from any application and utilise special OS X features including The Dock, Dashboard, Spotlight, Universal Access and VoiceOver.
21Chapter 1 - OS X - Getting around in OS X | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Getting around in OS XLearn to navigate windows, folders and files, perform important operating system tasks, instantly take screen snapshots and enable Full Keyboard Access, Universal Access and VoiceOver.
22 Chapter 1 - OS X - Getting around in OS X | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Getting around in OS XRestart, Sleep, Shutdown pop-up box
Quit all applications and restart
Switch to that application and hide previousapplication
(in another application)
Show pop-up box for Restart, Sleep or Shutdown
Cycle through windows in application or Finder(if more than one window is open)
Show Colors palette in application C
Show pop up menu with path to current folder or document
(the application window title)
Fast shutdown or
Unconditionally reboot(warning rebooting this way may corrupt disk)
Put late model PowerBooks & Desktops to sleep
Bring up debugger (if debugger installed)
Save As... S
Take a picture (screenshot) of the screen 3
Take a picture (screenshot) of the screen, but place it in the Clipboard instead if making a file
Take a picture (screenshot) of the selection 4
Take a picture (screenshot) of the selection, but place it inClipboard instead if making a file
4 then press whileselecting
Take a picture (screenshot) of the selected window 4 then space then
Note: Screenshots are saved to the Desktop as a PNG file
Show Font palette in application T
Move or remove item from toolbar (at the top of the window)
Drag item with mouse
Open Sidebar item in a new window the Sidebar item
Cancel a drag-and-drop action while in the midst of dragging
whilst dragging a file or folder
25Chapter 1 - OS X - Special Features | Dean Pirera 2008 - All Rights Reserved
Special FeaturesLearn t...