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  • http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewO bject.aspx?ID=NUR3103 http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewO bject.aspx?ID=NUR3103 http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewO bject.aspx?ID=NUR3103 http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewO bject.aspx?ID=NUR3103 Hormone game show Hormone game show
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  • The Endocrine System The Second Control System of the Body
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  • I. The Endocrine System and Hormone Function A. The Endocrine system helps to coordinate and control the activities of our bodys cells. This system is usually working closely with the Nervous System. 1. The Endocrine system is not built for speed like the nervous system is but is still able to cause major physiological changes and maintain homeostasis within the body. 1. The Endocrine system is not built for speed like the nervous system is but is still able to cause major physiological changes and maintain homeostasis within the body.
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  • I. The Endocrine System and Hormone Function B. The Chemistry of Hormones B. The Chemistry of Hormones 2. Hormones are the chemical force of the endocrine system. They are the messengers released by glands that cause changes within the body. Ex. Growth, reproduction, homeostasis and metabolism. 2. Hormones are the chemical force of the endocrine system. They are the messengers released by glands that cause changes within the body. Ex. Growth, reproduction, homeostasis and metabolism.
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  • I. The Endocrine System and Hormone Function 3. All hormones can be classified as amino acid based or steroid. 3. All hormones can be classified as amino acid based or steroid. A. Amino acid based hormone are A. Amino acid based hormone are proteins, peptides and amines. (most hormones are amino acid based) B. Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol (ex. Testosterone, progesterone, aldosterone) B. Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol (ex. Testosterone, progesterone, aldosterone) C. Protaglandins are made from lipids C. Protaglandins are made from lipids
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  • I. The Endocrine System and Hormone Function C. Mechanisms of Hormone Action C. Mechanisms of Hormone Action 4. Hormones affect only certain tissues or organs (target cells or organs) 4. Hormones affect only certain tissues or organs (target cells or organs) 5. Steroid hormones diffuse into the target cell and activate protein synthesis. This explains how birth control and patches work, but an insulin patch would not be effective because it is an amino acid hormone. 5. Steroid hormones diffuse into the target cell and activate protein synthesis. This explains how birth control and patches work, but an insulin patch would not be effective because it is an amino acid hormone.
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  • I. The Endocrine System and Hormone Function 6. Amino acid hormones bind to a receptor on the target cell and sets off a series of reactions inside the cell. 6. Amino acid hormones bind to a receptor on the target cell and sets off a series of reactions inside the cell. 7. Hormones cause one of the four changes: changes in the plasma membrane electrical state, synthesis of proteins, activation or deactivation of enzymes, or stimulation of mitosis. 7. Hormones cause one of the four changes: changes in the plasma membrane electrical state, synthesis of proteins, activation or deactivation of enzymes, or stimulation of mitosis.
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  • I. The Endocrine System and Hormone Function D. Control of Hormone Release D. Control of Hormone Release 1. Hormone levels in the blood are maintained by negative feedback mechanisms. For example: You eat a candy bar at lunch -> your blood sugar levels rise -> cells of the pancreas are activated and release insulin into the blood -> body cells are triggered by insulin to take up glucose -> blood glucose levels decline -> pancreas stops releasing insulin 1. Hormone levels in the blood are maintained by negative feedback mechanisms. For example: You eat a candy bar at lunch -> your blood sugar levels rise -> cells of the pancreas are activated and release insulin into the blood -> body cells are triggered by insulin to take up glucose -> blood glucose levels decline -> pancreas stops releasing insulin
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  • I. The Endocrine System and Hormone Function 2. There are three ways that endocrine glands can be activated: 2. There are three ways that endocrine glands can be activated: A. Hormonal- activation from other hormones A. Hormonal- activation from other hormones B. Humoral- activation by changing blood levels of certain ions (like calcium) B. Humoral- activation by changing blood levels of certain ions (like calcium) C. Neural- activation by nerve impulses C. Neural- activation by nerve impulses
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  • Control Pathways and Feedback Loops
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  • Complete the hormone chart by using your textbook and iPad if needed. Complete the hormone chart by using your textbook and iPad if needed. The function of the hormone is filled out for you, you need to Identify the hormone name, and for some there is a blank for a HYPO or HYPER secretion of that hormone- identify the disease The function of the hormone is filled out for you, you need to Identify the hormone name, and for some there is a blank for a HYPO or HYPER secretion of that hormone- identify the disease Disorders and Related Terminology Disorders and Related Terminology 1. acromegaly 1. acromegaly 2. Addisons disease 2. Addisons disease 3. Cushings syndrome 3. Cushings syndrome 4. diabetes mellitus 4. diabetes mellitus 5. dwarfism 5. dwarfism 6. exophthalmos 6. exophthalmos 7. gigantism 7. gigantism 8. goiter 8. goiter 9. glycosuria 10. hyperglycemia 11. hyperthyroidism 12. hypoglycemia 13. hypothyroidism 14. polydipsia 15. polyphagia 16. tetany
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  • II. Major Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones A. Pituitary Gland- hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus and has two functional lobes- the anterior (glandular tissue) and posterior (nervous tissue) A. Pituitary Gland- hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus and has two functional lobes- the anterior (glandular tissue) and posterior (nervous tissue) 1. Hormones of the anterior pituitary include: 1. Hormones of the anterior pituitary include: A. Growth Hormone- stimulates growth and metabolism (acromegaly of feet in picture) A. Growth Hormone- stimulates growth and metabolism (acromegaly of feet in picture) B. Prolactin- stimulates milk production B. Prolactin- stimulates milk production
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  • II. Major Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones C. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)- stimulates production of egg and sperm C. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)- stimulates production of egg and sperm D. Leutinizing Hormone (LH)- stimulates ovaries to release egg and testes to produce testosterone D. Leutinizing Hormone (LH)- stimulates ovaries to release egg and testes to produce testosterone E. Thyroid Stimulating (TSH)- stimulates thyroid gland E. Thyroid Stimulating (TSH)- stimulates thyroid gland F. Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)- stimulates adrenal glands F. Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)- stimulates adrenal glands
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  • II. Major Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones 2. Hormones of the posterior pituitary: A. Oxytocin- stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor B. Antidiuretic- decreases urine to increase water absorption
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  • II. Major Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones B. Thyroid Gland- found at the base of the throat B. Thyroid Gland- found at the base of the throat 3. Hormones include: A. Thyroid hormone- the major metabolic hormone (thyroxine or T4, and T3) B. Calcitonin- reduces blood calcium levels by causing its deposition to bone
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  • II. Major Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones C. Parathyroid glands- tiny masses on the posterior thyroid 4. Hormones include: A. Parathyroid hormone- raises blood calcium by stimulating osteoclasts to remove calcium from bone
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  • II. Major Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones D. Adrenal Glands- sit on top of the kidneys 5. Hormones include: A. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine- Fight-or-Flight hormones- increase blood glucose, increase rate of metabolism, constrict certain blood vessels Kennedy had Addisons Disease- Hyposecretion of adrenal hormones Cushings disease- hypersecretion of cortisol (adrenal hormone) Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of Addison's disease usually develop slowly, often over several months, and may include: Muscle weakness and fatigue Weight loss and decreased appetite Darkening of your skin (hyperpigmentation) Low blood pressure, even fainting Salt craving Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting Irritability Depression
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  • Other Adrenal gland hormones Glucocorticoids (steroid hormones) Glucocorticoids (steroid hormones) Cortisol- long term str ess hormones Cortisol- long term str ess hormones Cushings disease, h ypersecretion of cortis ol Cushings disease, h ypersecretion of cortis ol Mineralocorticoids- (Steroid hormones) Mineralocorticoids- (Steroid hormones) Aldosterone- targets ki dneys to regulate salt content of blood which regulates water balanc e in the body Aldosterone- targets ki dneys to regulate salt content of blood which regulates water balanc e in the body
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  • Flashcard Warm-up May 6 th #17 Hormones produced by the Pituitary Gland Hormones produced by the Pituitary Gland Anterior Lobe: Anterior Lobe: Posterior Lo