Hudson River Plume
Hudson River PlumePollution and the Atlantic OceanDrains about 13,400 square miles Encompasses 11 major sub-watershedsHome to about 20 million people in 5 different statesAbout 60% of the water from the Watershed is used for commercial or industrial purposes.
Hudson River WatershedHudson River PlumeHudson River empties out into the Atlantic OceanLaTTEFound that transportation is influenced by wind speed and direction, river discharge, shelf circulation and topographyBulge formed due to Density and Salinity differences
Water from Hudson River is warmer and less dense than water from Atlantic OceanLagrangian Transport and Transformation Experiment (LaTTE) to figure out flow of plume See how materials are transported from Hudson River into Atlantic Ocean by using non-toxic Dye
3 Days of WindLow-discharge500 m^3/s3 Days of Wind High discharge 3000 m^3 /s(top) Surface salinity and current vectors at 1-m depth, and
(bottom) equivalent depth of freshwater fw (m) after 3 days of wind forcing (t 3 days). The CI for fw is 0.2 m. Winds of5ms/1blow (a), (e) northward, (b), (f) southward, (c), (g) eastward, and (d), (h) westward. Blue arrow over the land indicates wind direction.
High discharge with no windFor the first 6 days of the high river discharge event the upper 3 m of the water column flows southward and is fed by both the river discharge and weak upstream transport of salty water When river discharge is near its maximum of 3000 m3 s1 from days 7 to 12, the upper layer of low-salinity water deepens and the salt intru- sion retreats southward some 1520 km to lie near As river discharge increases without wind forcing, freshwater initially accumulates within Raritan Bay then begins to extend eastward. By the time the dis- charge reaches its maximum of 3000 m3 s1 (10 days later) (Figs. 9a,e), a low-salinity bulge (somewhat elon- gated northsouth) has formed outside the mouth of Raritan Bay. A weak northward current develops at the western inshore side of the bulge along the northern New Jersey coast. The freshwater jet leaving Raritan Bay feeds the eastern edge of the bulge.
5Pollution in Hudson RiverPCBs General ElectricOil from and oil spill caused by ExxonMobilCSOsAgricultural Run-off Heavy metals (Mercury, Cadmium, Strontium-90) Both point-source pollution and non-point source pollution
PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls)- man made organic chemical that was used in many industrial applications due to its non-flammability, chemical stability, high boiling point, and electrical insulation properties. Banned in 1979 due to its toxicity- Carcinogenic Cadmium can be found in tobacco, batteries, plastics and paint. Cadmium effects the kidneys, bones and blood. Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of Strontium. It is a toxic byproduct from nuclear power plants. Exposure to this isotope can cause cancer even with low exposure and concentrations of the isotope. Combined Sewage Overflow- Combined Sewage system: domestic water waste, industrial waste and storm water all lead to one pipe taken to treatment plant due to population increase and other factors such as global warming, during heavy rainfall, the treatment plants do not have the capacity to treat influx of contaminated water so it just flows into our waterway untreated. 6Affect on AtlanticContaminants flow into Atlantic OceanContamination expands to a wider range
http://www.hudsonriverpark.org/assets/content/general/FishEatingWarning.pdfhttp://www.riverkeeper.org/water-quality/hudson/what/other-pollutantshttp://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/tsd/pcbs/pubs/about.htmhttp://www.hudsonwatershed.org/hudson-riverwatershed.htmlhttps://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1452100454/showing-the-real-face-of-plastic-pollution-in-our/postshttp://marine.rutgers.edu/~wilkin/ChoiWilkin_JPO2007.pdfhttp://new.coolclassroom.org/adventures/explore/plumeChant, Robert, John Wilkin, Weifeng Zhang, Byoung-Ju Choi, Eli Hunter, Renato Castelao, Scott Glenn, Joe Jurisa, Oscar Schofield, Robert Houghton, Josh Kohut, Thomas Frazer, and Mark Moline. "Dispersal of the Hudson River Plume in the New York Bight: Synthesis of Observational and Numerical Studies During LaTTE." Oceanography 21.4 (2008): 148-61. Web.