Text of HUM 110: INTRO TO AMERICAN FILM JC CLAPP, NORTH SEATTLE COMMUNITY COLLEGE INFO HERE BORROWED HEAVILY...
HUM 110: INTRO TO AMERICAN FILM JC CLAPP, NORTH SEATTLE COMMUNITY COLLEGE INFO HERE BORROWED HEAVILY FROM THE FILM ART (10 TH ED.) TEXTBOOK BY BORDWELL & THOMPSON AND FROM THE YALE FILM STUDIES WEBSITE: HTTP://CLASSES.YALE.EDU/FILM- ANALYSIS/HTMFILES/EDITING.HTM FILM EDITING
BASIC TYPES OF TRANSITIONS BETWEEN SHOTS Cut instant change from one shot to another Fade-out gradually darkens the end to black Fade-in gradually lightens a shot from black Dissolve briefly superimposes the end of shot A and the beginning of shot B Wipe shot B replaces shot A by means of a line that moves across the screen (both shots are seen at the same time, but dont blend)
EDITING ALLOWS FOR... Graphic relations between shots Rhythmic relations between shots Spatial relations between shots Temporal relations between shots Examples...
GRAPHIC RELATIONS BETWEEN SHOTS Graphic match shapes, colors or composition in shot A is reflected in shot B. (The example below from Aliens uses a dissolve, as well)
RHYTHMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN SHOTS Pace or tempo is the amount of time the audience has to grasp and reflect on what we see. Rapid shots leave us with little time and can build excitement. Pay attention to the rhythm of the film the pace matters. Some examples...
SPATIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN SHOTS Juxtaposing any two points in space suggests some kind of relationship. Kuleshov Effect: cutting together portions of a space in a way that prompts the viewer to assume a spatial whole that isnt actually shown onscreen. Montage
TEMPORAL RELATIONS BETWEEN SHOTS Order of events (chronology) Flashback Flashforward Elliptical editing: presents an action so that it consumes less time on screen than it does in the story. Overlapping editing: stretches the action out past its story duration
CONTINUITY EDITING Aims to transmit narrative information smoothly and clearly. Graphic qualities are kept roughly continuous, figures are balanced in the frame, lighting tonality remains constant, action occupies central zones of the screen. Long shots left on screen longer than medium shots, and medium shots are left on longer than close-ups.
CONTINUITY: 180 DEGREE SYSTEM Ensures that relative positions in the fram remain consistent Ensures consistent eyelines Ensures consistent screen direction (direction of movement) Ensures the viewer always knows where the characters are in relation to one another
180 DEGREE SYSTEM
CONTINUITY Shot/reverse-shot: shot from one end of the axis of action, then the other POV shot: shot down the axis Eyeline match: shot A presents someone looking at something offscreen and shot B shows us what is being looked at. (Eyeline matches often used with Kuleshov effect to create false spaces through editing.) Match on action: carrying a single movement across a cut Establishing shots and reestablishing shots