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    HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF (HADR) FROM THE SEA

    CAPT MARTIN A. SEBASTIAN RMN (R) & MOHD IKMAL HISYAM ABU

    CENTRE FOR MARITIME SECURITY & DIPLOMACY CMSD

    VERSION: FINAL

    DATE: 30 JAN 2016

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    Table of Contents 1.0 Problem Statement 4 2.0 Objectives of the Study 5 3.0 Outcome of the Study 5 4.0 Introduction 6 4.1 Natural Disaster 8 5.0 Recent Disaster 9 5.1 Typhoon Haiyan 11 5.2 Typhoon Hagupit 12 6.0 Global HADR 14 7.0 Extra Regional HADR 15 8.0 Regional HADR 17 9.0 National HADR 18 10.0 NADMA and NaDMA; A Comparison 18 11.0 Developments in Civil-Military Cooperation on HADR in Malaysia 19 12.0 Identify the Sea as a Theatre for Disaster Relief 22 13.0 Land as Relief Area to Effectively Coordinate HADR 24 14.0 Recommendation 25 14.1 Civil-Military Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for HADR 25

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    Table of Figures Figure 1: Cost of Natural Disasters 6 Figure 2: Infogram on Typhoon Nargis in Myanmar 9 Figure 3: Infogram on Typhoon Hayyan in the Philippines 11 Figure 4: Ilustrate Global, Extra Regional, Regional and National Actors in HADR and Their Roles, Function 14 Figure 5: OCHA Presence in the Global Disaster Relief 15 Figure 6: Pacific Disaster Centre Portal 16 Figure 7: AHA Centre 17 Figure 8: Industry Capability in HADR 23 Figure 9: Philippines Bureau of Fisheris and Aquatic Research(BFAR) for HADR 23 Figure 10: CONOPS for Disaster Relief from the Sea 25

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    HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF (HADR) FROM

    THE SEA

    Captain Martin A. SEBASTIAN RMN (R)

    Mohd Ikmal Hisyam bin Abu

    Centre for Maritime Security and Diplomacy

    MIMA

    Sometimes, the enormity of the disaster is such that a nation, however powerful, finds it difficult to

    manage the disaster on its own, thus warranting the need for external assistance and, more often than

    not, involvement of military. Why then the military? By nature of its structure, organization, assets and

    capability, militaries are seen as suited for immediate response to any disaster relief operations.

    However, foreign or international military involvement in any disaster relief operations must be short and

    objective orientated. Their main objective in HADR is to deploy quickly, set the ground, conduct SAR

    operations, save lives, provide medical assistance and leave the area once the situation is stabilized by

    handing over the responsibility to civilian-led government agencies, NGOs and the international

    community.

    Dato Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, Minister of Defence, Malaysia

    Shangri-La Dialogue 2010, Fourth Plenary Session, 6 June 2010

    1.0 Problem Statement

    Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) is about bringing

    together humanitarian actors to ensure a coherent response to emergencies.

    It is a time sensitive activity which means timely response is the essence to

    bring relief to affected victims in time of disaster. To achieve this, coordination

    and mobility become the key pillars. The National Security Councils Arahan

    MKN No. 20:DasardanMekanismePengurusanBencana Negara was

    promulgated on 11 May 1997 following the highland towers incident.

    However, it is a land centric incident which does not cater for mitigation on

    HADR but responses. Additionally, it does not cater for responses from the

    sea. The new National Disaster Management Agency (NADMA) acts as a

    coordinating agency, however policies on HADR from the sea policies nor the

    effective use of the civil-military cooperation architectures are not apparent.

    Therefore, there is a dual need to policies for HADR from the sea and the use

    of civil-military architecture for HADR operations. The lessons learnt from

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    previous HADR operations in the region suggests a need for the use of the

    sea and to explore further the benefits of civil-military cooperation in HADR.

    2.0 The Objectives of this Study is as follows:

    Illustrate Global, Extra Regional, Regional and National actors in

    HADR and their roles, functions.

    Identify the sea as a theatre for disaster relief

    Divide the sea and land into maneuver area and relief area to

    effectively coordinate HADR

    Maneuver area managed by military and industry whilst relief area

    managed by inter-agency

    Include industry as key players in HADR and bring to bear industry

    level logistics and coordination mechanisms

    3.0 The outcome from this Study is as follows:

    Concept of Operation for Militaries

    Identify industrial support for Disaster Relief

    Develop delivery, storage including protection, distribution and

    monitoring mechanism

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    Figure 1: Cost of Natural Disasters

    4.0 Introduction

    Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations have

    attracted the attention of the global community in recent years. Building

    capabilities, interoperability and a conceptual framework for participation in

    these operations has gained traction among national, regional and

    international policymakers. Malaysia being a divided land mass, Peninsula

    and Sabah/Sarawak with coasts at every state may need to factor the sea as

    a conduit for HADR. In so far as the Arahan MKN No. 20:

    DasardanMekanismePengurusanBencana Negara is concerned, it is a land

    centric disaster relief Instruction It does not lay foundations for comprehensive

    action in cases of disasters akin to those that has hit ASEAN. Though

    disasters cost a fortune of response, it is vital that the response reach the

    affected population early, feed and provide shelter, tender to the injured, clear

    the dead and destroy carcasses that may give rise to outbreaks. In addition,

    there is a need to clear the affected area from debris for relief agencies to

    conduct logistics movement. This will entail providing fuel support services

    and mobility support in addition to shelter for relief agencies working round the

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    clock. They too need to be fed and protected from disease. Coordination

    mechanisms between logistics providers, movers, storage and distribution are

    vital to ensure the right elements reach the right people at the right time and

    at the right location. Force protection of storage areas will be required

    especially food and medicine. In understanding the whole gamut of HADR, it

    is vital to first understand that the supported and supporting both will require

    adequate logistics. To provide relief, relief agencies themselves must be

    appropriately trained for the calibrated response. Whilst doing so, they must

    be well aware of the restrictions, constraints and the hazards forthwith. This is

    where prior knowledge will be essential, learning from the lessons of past

    incidents.Humanitarian organisations should appreciate that the key factors to

    responding quickly to meet disaster survivors' expectations are: local

    permanent relief logistics facilities; transportation; preparedness of human

    resource and co-ordination between different parties. Without it, essential

    supplies and relief will take much longer to reach the people who need it most

    at the time they need it most.

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    4.1 Natural Disasters. More than seven trillion US dollars of

    economic damage and eight million deaths via natural disasters have

    been recorded since the start of the 20th century1. The number of

    natural disasters around the world has increased by more than four

    times in the last 20 years, according to a report released by the British

    charity Oxfam.Oxfam analyzed data from the Red Cross,United

    Nations and researchers at Louvain University in Belgium. It found that

    the earth is currently experiencing approximately 500 natural disasters

    per year, compared with 120 per year in the early 1980s. The number

    of weather-related disasters in 2015 was 240, compared with 60 in

    19802. The worlds failure to prepare for natural disasters will have

    inconceivably bad consequences as climate change fuels a huge

    increase in catastrophic droughts and floods and the humanitarian

    crises that follow. Last year, earthquakes, floods, heatwaves and

    landslides left 22,773 people dead, affected 98.6 million others and

    caused $66.5bn (47bn) of economic damage. Yet the international

    community spends less than half of one per cent of the global aid

    budget on mitigating the risks posed by such hazards. Robert Glasser,

    the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Disaster Risk

    Reduction, said that with the world already falling short in its response

    to humanitarian emergencies, things would only get worse as climate

    change adds to the pressure.3

    1https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160418092043.html

    2http://www.naturalnews.com/023362_natural_disasters_floods.html#ixzz47QFKxeQO

    3http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/apr/24/world-heading-for-catastrophe-over-

    natural-disasters-risk-expert-warns

    http://www.unisdr.org/files/47804_2015disastertrendsinfographic.pdfhttp://www.unisdr.org/files/47804_2015disastertrendsinfographic.pdfhttp://www.unisdr.org/files/47804_2015disastertr