Savitribai Phule Pune University
Savitribai Phule Pune University
Agriculture is the backbone of Indias economic activity and our experience during the last 50 years has demonstrated the strong correlation between agricultural growth and economic prosperity. The present agricultural scenario is a mix of outstanding achievements and missed opportunities. If India has to emerge as an economic power in the world, our agricultural productivity should equal those countries, which are currently rated as economic power of the world. We need a new and effective technology which can improve continuously the productivity, profitability, sustainability of our major farming systems. One such technology is the green house technology. Although it is centuries old, it is new to India.In India, dependence on agricultural productivity and geographical conditions contribute to underdevelopment and poverty. These factors can be alleviated by alternative farming techniques such as hydroponics. The goal of our project was to design and construct a hydroponic system that can be integrated into the agricultural curriculum while introducing business skills. This report includes to assess the operation and educational use of the hydroponic system.
Chapter 1INTRODUCTIONHydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions (water containing fertilizers) with or without the use of an arti cial medium (sand, gravel, vermiculite, rockwool, perlite, peatmoss. coir, or sawdust) to provide mechanical support.
Fig.1: Basic Hydrophonic Farming
As seen in the picture, irrigation pipes carrying nutrient solutions (water containing fertilizers). Also notice the plastic containers containing arti cial medium to provide mechanical supportLiquid hydroponic systems have no other supporting medium for the plant roots: aggregate systems have a solid medium of support. Hydroponic systems are further categorized as open (i.e. once the nutrient solution is delivered to the plant roots, it is not reused) or closed (i.e. surplus solution is recovered, replenished, and recycled). Hydroponic growing (as opposed to soil growing) allows you to control the nutrient levels for your plants directly. Because of the higher control over nutrients, hydroponically grown plants generally have a much higher yield than similar plants grown in soil.Hydroponics growing A plant gets its food source by turning Co2, light and water (or hydrogen) into carbohydrates through a process called photosynthesis. With hydroponics growing, plants are grown without soil so they must get their nutrients from the nutrient solutions added to water. The absence of soil in growing means that hydroponics systems must have some way of supporting the plants while still allowing the bare root system maximum exposure to the nutrient solution. Often a growing medium is used for support and to aid in moisture and nutrient retention in hydroponics growing. Because they lack media to store water and nutrients, water culture systems need a continuous ow of nutrients to prevent drying out the plant roots.
Plants need an energy source in order to grow. With hydroponics growing this energy may come from natural light, which has the full spectrum of colour or through the use of different types of articial lighting (grow lights), which can be selected for specic plant varieties and optimum plant growth characteristics
1.1) PROBLEM STATEMENTThe issue of global warming and climate change is a major which will be faced by coming generation. The climate change has significant effect on our lifestyle and our food habit. Food being the source of living,the agriculture has a major impact due to which we are not able to produce as much as our consumption and quality. We have moved from shift agriculture to green revolution to genetic modified crop. All this advancement in type of agriculture get affected by climate change like lack of rain, depleting soil quality etc. so we need to develop a agriculture practice where we can minimise the effect of climate changeHydrophonic farming is a better alternative where we control various parameter that affect agriculture practices with help of various sensors, controllers etc
OBJECTIVE OF STUDYWe wanted to identify the needs, goals, and constraints of the team and thestrengths and weaknesses of the previous hydroponic system as a basis for defining userrequirements for the new hydroponic system. We intended to learn about the followingtopics: The design of the system, the materials used, and reasons why these were chosen; What the team would have done differently with the project; The startup cost of the system; Which vegetables grew well, which didnt, and the price they sold for at the market; and, The strengths and weaknesses of the previous hydroponic system.Chapter 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Greenhouse Hardware Of fundamental importance to hydroponic lettuce production are the physical components of both the germination area and the pond area. It is necessary to have not only an idea of the physical components associated with each area, but also a good understanding of their purposes.
Nursery or Seedling production Area The first 11 days of lettuce production takes place in the seedling production area. Seedlings develop best under constant lighting conditions with specific, closely controlled temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and irrigation. These conditions can only be met in a controlled area, whether that is a greenhouse or a growth room, with the following equipment: Ebb and Flood Benches, Tables, or Ponds Solution Tank and Plumbing Supplemental Lighting Aspirated sensor Box Sensors
2.2 Germination Room In general, a separate room for germination of seedlings is very energy intensive. Our experience was that the improvement in growth obtained by utilizing a germination room was not worth the large amount of energy such a room used and its use was discontinued. Cool white fluorescent (CWF) lamps or High Pressure Sodium/Metal halide are recommended. Heat generated by the lamps must be dissipated from the germination area in order to maintain the temperature set points. Use of incandescent lamps is discouraged because the red light emitted from these lamps causes the seedlings to 'stretch'. Fluorescent lamps are rich in blue light, which cause compact and sturdy seedlings.
Fig 2 GFH System Greenhouse High Intensity Discharge (HID) luminaire in a greenhouse. If germination of seedlings is performed in a greenhouse, high intensity discharge (HID) luminaires such as high pressure sodium (HPS) of metal halide (MH) are recommended. Configuration and Intensity Lamps should be configured for a uniform distribution of light over the entire growing area. Light intensity is maintained at no less than 50 mol/m2/s of PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) during the first 24 hours the seeds are kept in the germination area. This level of illumination prevented stretching of the seedlings while minimizing the tendency of supplemental lighting to dry out the surface of the medium. Sum the accumulated hourly PAR values for a daily PAR value. For the remaining 10 days, the light intensity is maintained at 250 mol/m2/s. The photoperiod (or day length) is 24 hours. Shorter photoperiods are acceptable if the light intensity is increased to provide the same total daily accumulated light (~22 mol/m2/d). Anecdotal evidence shows that some lettuce seedlings can tolerate 30 mol/m2/d. Note for germination rooms: Light output of CWF and HID lamps decays over time. Thus, it is important to measure the light output of the lamps regularly. If the light intensity drops below an acceptable level (e.g. 200 mol/m2/s), new lamps should be installed. A quantum sensor can be used to measure the amount of PAR.
Aspirated box opening on bottom of box. This is an example of an aspirated box which houses and protects the sensors the computer uses to make control decisions from light or localized temperature fluxes. Most greenhouse control systems supply their own aspirated boxes with sensors included that will be used for environmental monitoring. Aspirated boxes can be home-made but care must be taken so that the air is drawn over the sensors so that heat is not added to the air from the fans. The position of the box should be close to the plant canopy to measure the environmental parameters at the plant level. This may not be possible in all germination areas. The box is equipped with a small fan which draws air past the sensors. Sensors are located upstream from the fan.
Pond AreaThe concepts involved in the pond area are the following:Pond SizePond SolutionConstructionPond DesignLightingPaddle FanAspirated BoxPond SizeFor example, for the production of 1245 heads per day a 660 m2 growing area is required. The lettuce plants are grown in the pond area for 21 days. This includes one re-spacing of the plants at Day 21, from 97 plants m-2 to 38 plants/sq m.Pond SolutionEqual portions of Stock Solutions A and B (see formulas in appendix) are added to reverse-osmosis RO water to achieve an EC of 1200 S/cm or 1.2 dS/cm.ConstructionThere are three main options for pond construction. The pond may be sunken in the greenhouse floor, with the pond surface just above the floor (not pictured). A containerized pond with concrete or wooden walls (Figure 12) can be constructed on top of the floor of the greenhouse. The pond can be built on an island of fill with the ponds built into the fill so that the water level is closer to waist level to lessen the amount of bending that must be performed when working with the crop. An important note is that a greenhouse that uses this system must be sufficiently tall so that supplemental lighting is not too close to the plants (not pictured).In any case, the pond floo