I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule All food is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion – By the time food reaches your bloodstream,

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    15-Dec-2015

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Slide 2 Slide 3 I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule All food is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion By the time food reaches your bloodstream, it has been broken down into nutrient molecules that can enter your cells. Slide 4 I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule Cellular reactions then break down the food molecules, releasing energy for the biological work your cells need to perform. Energy = the ability to do work Slide 5 I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate) = energy storing molecule. Slide 6 I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule Cells STORE energy by bonding a third phosphate group to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to form ATP. Cells RELEASE energy when ATP breaks down into ADP and phosphate! Slide 7 I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule Energy from food ATP ADP + Phosphate ENERGY released for cells Slide 8 I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule Within a cell, formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate occurs over and over, storing energy each time! Slide 9 I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule Cells use energy for: Maintaining homeostasis Eliminating wastes Transmitting impulses (nerve cells) Cellular movement (muscle cells) Without ATP a cell would die! Slide 10 Slide 11 I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" Photosynthesis = the process that provides energy for almost all life. Autotrophs = organisms that make their own food Ex: plants Photosynthesis requires: The sun's energy, water and carbon dioxide to make carbohydrate molecules and oxygen as byproducts. Slide 12 The process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS can be summarized by the following equation: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Chlorophyll Slide 13 Slide 14 I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" The energy stored in glucose and other carbohydrates can be used later to produce ATP during the process of cellular respiration. Well discuss cellular respiration in more detail very soon! Slide 15 I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" The process of photosynthesis does NOT happen all at once; rather it occurs in 2 stages: Slide 16 I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" 1. STAGE 1 Called the LIGHT REACTIONS. Light energy is converted to chemical energy Takes place Energy is captured from sunlight in the chlorophyll of the chloroplasts of plant cells. A photosynthetic cell contains one to thousands of chloroplasts! Slide 17 Stage 1: Light Reactions Water is split into hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen (O 2 ) through the process called the electron transport chain. The light energy is now converted to chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP and NADPH (energy molecules). The O 2 diffuses out of the chloroplasts (byproduct). Slide 18 Stage 2: Calvin Cycle 2. STAGE 2 Called the CALVIN CYCLE or Dark Reactions. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of carbohydrate molecules (sugars, starch and cellulose). Slide 19 Stage 2: Calvin Cycle Takes place in the stroma of a chloroplast Slide 20 Slide 21 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Flow Chart H2OH2O Sun- light CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 O2O2 Light Reactions Dark Reactions (Calvin cycle) ATP NADPH Slide 22 Photosynthesis Equation: ____+ ____ + ______ _____ + _____ C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6H 2 O6CO 2 Sunlight Chlorophyll Slide 23 Slide 24 I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" Cellular respiration = an energy (ATP) releasing process: PLANTS: sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) produced during photosynthesis are broken down so energy is released ANIMALS: sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) produced during digestion are broken down so energy is released Slide 25 I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 + ATP Slide 26 The PRODUCTS of photosynthesis glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and O 2, are the REACTANTS used in cellular respiration. The WASTE PRODUCTS of cellular respiration, CO 2 and water, are the REACTANTS used in photosynthesis. Slide 27 I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" Processes: 1.Glycolysis 2.Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 3.Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Slide 28 II. TWO TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION: II. TWO TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION: 1.Aerobic Respiration = OXYGEN is present If OXYGEN is PRESENT, the products of glycolysis ENTER the pathways of aerobic respiration. 2 major stages: Krebs Cycle & Electron Transport Chain Produces large amounts of ATP Slide 29 II. TWO TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION: II. TWO TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION: 2. Anaerobic Respiration = No OXYGEN is present aka.Fermentation No additional ATP is created AFTER glycolysis produces 2 ATP Slide 30 ~ Note: Both types of respiration BEGIN with glycolysis. Slide 31 III. AEROBIC RESPIRATION PROCESSES: 1. GLYCOLYSIS: Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Starting molecule: ONE molecule of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Slide 32 Glycolysis. Produces: TWO pyruvic acids or pyruvates (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) 2 ATP molecules Attaches Hs to NAD + (electron carrier) and forms NADH (high energy molecule) Slide 33 III. AEROBIC RESPIRATION PROCESSES: 2. KREBS CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) Aerobic respiration Aerobic process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the mitochondrion Slide 34 Krebs Cycle. Starting molecules: 2 pyruvates and oxygen Produces: NADH and FADH 2, CO 2 and 2 ATP molecules Attaches Hs to NAD + and FAD to create NADH and FADH 2 (these will be used to make more ATP in the ETC) Slide 35 III. AEROBIC RESPIRATION PROCESSES: 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC) Aerobic respiration Aerobic process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria Slide 36 ETC. Starting molecules: NADH and FADH 2 and oxygen Uses the NADH and FADH 2 from the Krebs Cycle and another NADH from Glycolysis. Slide 37 ETC. Produces: Water and 32 ATPs FADH 2 and NADH, release Hs so they can attach to oxygen and produce water Energy is released as a result of breaking down these molecules. Slide 38 Importance of Aerobic Respiration: To transfer chemical energy (glucose) to a form of energy that is useable by cells (ATP)!!! Total net gain of ATP molecules per 1 glucose = 36 ATPs Slide 39 Relationship of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration: The products of one reaction are the reactants for the other reaction. In an ecosystem, photosynthesis and cellular respiration form a cycle Slide 40 Sunlight Photosynthesis (autotrophs) O 2 + GlucoseCO 2 + H 2 O Cellular Respiration (heterotrophs) Slide 41 Slide 42 IV. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION PROCESSES: Occurs AFTER glycolysis, only if NO oxygen is present No additional ATP is created after the 2ATPs from glycolysis! Slide 43 (Anaerobic Respiration) 2 Types: 1. Alcoholic Fermentation: Occurs in plants Starting molecules: 2 pyruvates and NADH (from glycolysis) Produces: ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Bakers use alcoholic fermentation of YEAST to make bread. Used to make wine and beer Slide 44 (Anaerobic Respiration) 2 Types: 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation: Occurs in animals Starting molecules: 2 pyruvates and NADH (from glycolysis) Produces: lactic acid Lactic acid fermentation by microorganisms plays an essential role in the manufacturing of food products such as yogurt and cheese. Slide 45 Lactic Acid Fermentation: DURING EXERCISE: breathing cannot provide your body with all the oxygen it needs for aerobic respiration. Slide 46 Lactic Acid Fermentation & Exercise When muscles run out of oxygen, the cells switch to lactic acid fermentation! Provides your muscles with the energy then need during exercise. Slide 47 Lactic Acid Fermentation & Exercise Side effects of lactic acid fermentation are muscle fatigue, pain, cramps, and soreness. Most lactic acid made in the muscles diffuses into the bloodstream, then to the liver; where it is converted back to PYRUVIC ACID when oxygen becomes available. Slide 48 Flow Chart AEROBIC Respiration (__________________________) Oxygen PRESENT Slide 49 C 6 H 12 O 6 #1 Glycolysis #2 Krebs Cycle #3 ETC 2 ATP 2 Pyruvates NADH O2O2 CO 2 O2O2 2 ATP FADH 2 + NADH H2OH2O32 ATP Slide 50 Aerobic Respiration EQUATION: _______ + ____ _____ + _____ +____ C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6H 2 O6CO 2 36 ATP Slide 51 ANAEROBIC Respiration (______________________) NO Oxygen PRESENT! Slide 52 OR Glycolysis Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation Animals Plants CO 2 Ethyl Alcohol Lactic Acid C 6 H 12 O 6 2 ATP Note: Only GLYCOLYSIS produces energy!!No ATP (energy) is produced from lactic acid or alcoholic fermentation! 2 pyruvates NADH

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