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ICD-10-CM Coding An Introduction to Organizational & Structural Changes Presenter: Mary Valencia, CPC, CMC, CMOM, ICD-10 Instructor

ICD-10-CM Coding

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An Introduction to Organizational & Structural Changes. ICD-10-CM Coding. Presenter: Mary Valencia , CPC, CMC, CMOM, ICD-10 Instructor. Introduction to ICD-10. World Health Organization (WHO) Owns and publishes International Classification of Diseases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of ICD-10-CM Coding

Page 1: ICD-10-CM Coding

ICD-10-CM Coding

An Introduction to Organizational & Structural ChangesPresenter: Mary Valencia, CPC, CMC, CMOM, ICD-10 Instructor

Page 2: ICD-10-CM Coding

Introduction to ICD-10

• World Health Organization (WHO)– Owns and publishes International Classification of

Diseases• Used world-wide for morbidity and mortality reporting

– 10th revision (ICD-10) endorsed in 1990– Many countries have been using ICD-10 or a modified

version since 1994 – The U.S. has been using ICD-10 for mortality reporting

since 1999, but continues to use a modified version of ICD-9 referred to as ICD-9-CM for morbidity reporting and other purposes

January 2009, federal government determined the U.S. would upgrade to the 10th revision of the ICD as of October 1, 2013.

This was delayed by one year to October 1, 2014.

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Introduction, continued

ICD-10-CMClinical Modification• Used to assign diagnosis codes• Clinical modification of ICD-10

was developed by the National Center for Health Statistics, a division of the CDC

ICD-10-PCSProcedural Coding System• Used to assign procedure codes

for the inpatient setting• Unique to the U.S. and

independent of the ICD-10, but designed to complement the structure of ICD-10

• Developed by CMS with 3M’s health information systems division

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Who will be affected?

ICD-10-CM• Used by all healthcare

providers in all settings to assign and/or interpret diagnoses.– Principal/Primary diagnosis– Secondary diagnosis

ICD-10-PCS• Will capture inpatient

procedures for acute care hospital claims.

Professionals and the outpatient setting (Medicare Part B claims) will continue to use

Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes.

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Why Change?Benefits to ICD-10-CM/PCS

Specificity Tracking Expansion

• Reduced ambiguity• Current terminology

and technology

• Relevance to


• Flexibility in adding new codes

• Recommended revisions that ICD-9 could not accommodate

• Future expansion

• Data transparency for reimbursement and compliance efforts

• Data of new diseases and technologies

• HIPAA criteria for 5010 code set standards

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ICD-10-CM Format (3-7 Characters)

ExtensionEtiology, Anatomical Site, SeverityCategory



Alpha or Numeric



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Diagnosis Coding & Data Differences

ICD-9-CM• 3-5 characters in length• First digit is numeric but can

be alpha (E or V)• Always at least three digits• Digits 2-5 are numeric• Alpha characters are not case


ICD-10-CM• 3-7 characters in length• First character always alpha• All letters used except U• Always at least three digits• Character 2 always numeric:

3-7 can be alpha or numeric• Alpha characters are not case


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• Hierarchal structure is the same • 21 Chapters rather than 19 Chapters• Diseases and Conditions of the Sense Organs (Eyes

and Ears) separated from Nervous System Chapter• To reflect current medical knowledge, certain

diseases have been reclassified to a more appropriate chapter – Example: Gout moved from Endocrine to Musculoskeletal

ICD-10-CM Organizational Changes

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• Combination codes for conditions and common symptoms or manifestations– I25.110 Atherosclerotic heart disease of native coronary

artery with unstable angina pectoris• Combination codes for poisonings and external

causes– T42.4X5A Adverse effect of benzodiazepines, initial

encounter• Added laterality

– H60.332 Swimmer’s ear, left ear

ICD-10-CM New FeaturesGreater Specificity

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• Added seventh-characters for episode of care– M80.051A Age-related osteoporosis with current

pathological fracture, right femur, initial encounter for fracture

• Expanded codes (injuries, diabetes, alcohol and substance abuse, postoperative complications)– E11.341 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with sever

nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema• Inclusion of trimesters in obstetrics codes (and

elimination of fifth digits for episode of care)– O99.013 Anemia complicating pregnancy, third trimester

ICD-10-CM New Features

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• Changes in time frames specified in certain codes– Acute myocardial infarction

• time period changed from 8 weeks to 4 weeks

• Added standard definitions for two types of “excludes” notes– Excludes 1

• “Not Coded Here”. The code being excluded is never used with the code. The two conditions cannot occur together.

– Excludes 2• “Not Included Here”. The excluded condition is not part of the

condition represented by the code. It is acceptable to use both codes together if the patient has both conditions.

ICD-10-CM New Features

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Used In

• Seventh Character

•Obstetrics•Injury•External Cause

Either alpha or numeric

Placeholder “x”

Meanings vary

Injury and External Cause - Identifies Injury

Initial – Receiving active treatment

Subsequent – Receiving routine

care during healing or recovery (after active treatment)

Sequela – Complications or

conditions arising as result of a condition

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• General Equivalence Mappings– Facilitate transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM– Two files available for bidirectional mappings– Designed with programmers in mind– CMS website

• http://www.cms.hhs.gov/ICD10 – NCHS website

• http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/icd/icd10cm.htm

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Organization & Structure of ICD-10-CM

• Alphabetic Index – Divided into two parts

• Index to Diseases and Injuries including– Neoplasm Table– Table of Drugs and Chemicals

• Index to External Causes

• Tabular List– 21 Chapters– Order is a bit different from ICD-9-CM– Chapters divided into Subchapters with instructional notes– “other” versus “unspecified”

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Terminology ChangesSepsis SepticemiaBleeding HemorrhageAndrogenic Alopecia Baldness

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ICD-10-CM Conventions

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Placeholder Character

• The letter “x” has two uses– As a fifth character for certain six character codes

• T37.0X1A Poisoning by sulfonamides, accidental (unintentional), initial encounter

– When a code has less than six characters but a seventh character is required.• W85.XXXA Exposure to electric transmission lines, initial


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7th Characters

• Can be either a number or letter• Required for some of the ICD-10-CM codes• Added for increased specificity• Must always be in the 7th character position

O 6 5 0 X X 1

Obstructed labor due to deformed pelvis, fetus 1

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• NEC (Not Elsewhere Classified)– Describes a code which has not been classified anywhere

else in the code set.

• NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)– Used when the documentation of the condition identified

by the provider is insufficient to assign a more specified code.

ICD-10-CM ICD-9-CMH26.8 Other specified cataract 366.8 Other cataract

ICD-10-CM ICD-9-CMJ12.9 Viral pneumonia, unspecified 480.9 Viral pneumonia, unspecified

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Instructional Notes

• Includes– Used in Tabular Section– Not an exhaustive list

• Excludes– Excludes 1– Excludes 2

• Code First • Use Additional Code• Cross Reference Notes

– See, See Also, and See Condition

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Instructional Notes

• Relational Terms– And, interpreted as “and/or”– With, interpreted as “associated with” or “due to”

• “with” is sequenced immediately after the main term in the Index

• Laterality– Left/Right– If no bilateral code provided, code both the left and right.– If the side is not identified in the record, assign the coder

for the unspecified side.

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Condition Specific Changes

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Infectious & Parasitic Diseases A00-B99

• Includes diseases generally recognized as communicable or transmissible

• Use additional code to identify resistance to antimicrobial drugs (Z16)

• When coding sepsis or AIDS, it is important to review the Coding Guidelines and the notes at the category level of ICD-10-CM

Ch. 1

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Infectious & Parasitic Diseases A00-B99

• Code first condition resulting from (sequela) the infectious or parasitic disease

• Bacterial and viral infectious agents (B95-B97) are provided for use as supplementary or additional codes to identify the infectious agent(s) in diseases classified elsewhere– Index

• Infection• Organism (Streptococcus)

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• Coding Note: ICD-10-CM has created a range of codes to identify infections with a predominantly sexual mode of transmission (A50-A64). It is important to note that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is excluded from this range of codes.

Infectious & Parasitic Diseases A00-B99

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I.C.2 General Neoplasm Guidelines• The Neoplasm Table in the Alphabetic Index should

be referenced first. However, if the histological term is documented, that term should be referenced first, rather than going immediately to the Neoplasm Table, in order to determine which column in the Neoplasm Table is appropriate.

Ch. 2

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• A primary malignant neoplasm overlapping two or more contiguous (next to each other) sites should be– classified to the subcategory/code .8 (overlapping

lesion), – unless the combination is specifically indexed

elsewhere. • For multiple neoplasms of the same site that are not

contiguous, such as tumors in different quadrants of the same breast, – codes for each site should be assigned.

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Endocrine, Nutritional & Metabolic Diseases E00-E89

Diabetes mellitus• New subchapter for diabetes and malnutrition• Instead of a single category (250) now there are five

categories• Combination codes• No longer classified as controlled or uncontrolled• Inadequately, out of control or poorly controlled

coded by type with hyperglycemia

Ch. 4

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5 Categories of Diabetes

• E08, Diabetes mellitus due to underlying condition• E09, Drug or chemical induced diabetes• E10, Type 1 diabetes mellitus• E11, Type 2 diabetes mellitus• E13, Other specified diabetes mellitus

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Mental, Behavioral and Neurodevelopmental Disorders F01-F99

• Unique codes for alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence

• Continuous or episodic no longer classified• History of drug or alcohol dependence coded as “in

remission”• Combination codes• Blood alcohol level (Y90.-)

Ch. 5

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Coding Note:ICD-10-CM provides a code to indicate blood alcohol level.

Under the category F10, there is a "use additional code" note for blood alcohol level. Blood alcohol level can be indexed in the Index to External Causes.

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•The ICD-10-CM classification system does not provide separate "history" codes for alcohol and drug abuse. These conditions are identified as “in remission” in ICD-10-CM.

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• Sense organs (eye/adnexa and ear/mastoid process) moved to their own chapter

• Category for Alzheimer’s disease (G30) has been expanded to reflect onset (early versus late)

• ICD-10-CM has two codes for phantom limb syndrome, differentiating whether pain is present or not

• Organic Sleep Disorders– Moved to Chapter 6 from signs and symptoms– Sleep Apnea has own category (G47.3) with fifth character

to specify type

Diseases of the Nervous System G00-G99 Ch. 6

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Diseases of the Nervous System G00-G99

• Epilepsy terminology updated– Localization-related idiopathic– Generalized idiopathic– Special epileptic syndromes

• Provides specificity for– Seizures of localized onset– Complex partial seizures– Intractable– Status epilepticus

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Diseases of Eyes and AdnexaH00-H59

• Concept of laterality– Right– Left– Bilateral– Unspecified

If bilateral is not available, assign code for right and left.

Ch. 7

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Diseases of Ear and Mastoid ProcessH60-H95

• Otitis media• Use additional code for any associated perforated tympanic

membrane (H72.-)• Use additional code to identify

– Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (Z77.22)– Exposure to tobacco smoke in the perinatal period (P96.81)– History of tobacco use (Z87.891)– Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

(Z57.31)– Tobacco dependence (F17.-)– Tobacco use (Z72.0)

Ch. 8

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Diseases of the Circulatory SystemI00-I99

• Type of hypertension not used as an axis • Acute MI codes changed from 8 weeks to 4 weeks

or less• I21 Initial AMIs• I22 Subsequent AMIs

– A code from category I22 must be used in conjunction with a code from category I21.

– Category I22 is never used alone. – The sequencing of the I22 and I21 codes depends on the

circumstances of the encounter.

Ch. 9

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Diseases of the Respiratory SystemJ00-J99

• New terminology for asthma – Mild intermittent– Mild persistent– Moderate persistent– Severe persistent

• Respiratory condition in more than 1 site (not specifically indexed) classified to lower anatomic site

• Additional code notes


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Asthma Severity

• Frequency of Daytime Symptoms• Intermittent

– Less than or equal to 2 times per week• Mild Persistent

– More than 2 times per week• Moderate Persistent

– Daily. May restrict physical activity• Severe Persistent

– Throughout the day. Frequent severe attacks limiting ability to breathe.

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• Coding Note: In the Tabular there is an Excludes2 note under category J45 for asthma with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. By definition, when an Excludes2 note appears under a code, it is acceptable to use both the code and the excluded code together if the patient has both conditions at the same time.

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Diseases of the Digestive SystemK00-K95

• New subchapters– Diseases of the liver

• Terminology changes– Hemorrhage is used when referring to ulcers– Bleeding is used when classifying gastritis, duodenitis,

diverticulosis, and diverticulitis• K50, Crohn’s disease

– Expanded to the fourth, fifth, and sixth character– Specifies the site of the Crohn’s and – If a complication is present

Ch. 11

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Diseases of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue L00-L99

• Pressure ulcers– Site, laterality, and severity specified in single code– Severity identified as

stage 1–4• Non-pressure chronic ulcers

– Site, laterality, and severity– Important note – category L97


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• Coding Note: An instructional note appears in the Tabular, under codes L27.0 and L27.1, stating to use additional code for adverse effect, if applicable, to identify drug (T36-T50 with fifth or sixth character 5).

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Diseases of Musculoskeletal System & Connective Tissue M00-M99


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Pathological or Stress Fracture Seventh Characters

•Initial encounterA

•Subsequent – routine healingD•Subsequent – delayed healingG

•Subsequent – nonunionK

•Subsequent – malunionP


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• Spontaneous rupture– Occurs when normal force

is applied to tissues that are inferred to have less than normal strength

• Fragility fracture– Sustained with trauma no more than a fall from a standing

height or less occurring under circumstances that would not cause a fracture in a normal healthy bone

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Pathologic Fractures

• Coding Note:ICD-10-CM has three different categories for pathologic fractures – due to neoplastic disease, due to osteoporosis, and due to other specified disease.

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Diseases of the Genitourinary SystemN00-N99

• Code also underlying conditionN17• Code first etiologyN18• Additional code infectious agentN30• Additional code urinary incontinenceN31• Code first underlying diseaseN33• Additional code for associated symptomsN40.1

Additional Codes Required


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Pregnancy, Childbirth and the Puerperium O00-O9A

• 1st Trimester– Less than 14 weeks 0 days

• 2nd Trimester– 14 weeks 0 days to less than

28 weeks 0 days• 3rd Trimester

– 28 weeks 0 days until delivery

Trimester axis of classification rather than episode of care•Not all conditions include codes for all three trimesters or is N/A•Counted from first day of last menstrual period


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• Codes from this chapter are for use only on maternal records, never on newborn records

• Codes from this chapter are for use for conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth, or by the puerperium (maternal causes or obstetric causes)

• Category Z3A – Weeks of Gestation, added to identify specific week of pregnancy

Pregnancy, Childbirth and the Puerperium O00-O9A

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• Abortion vs. fetal death– 20 weeks instead of 22

• Early vs. late vomiting– 20 weeks instead of 22

• Preterm labor– 37 completed weeks of gestation

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Seventh Character

• 0 – not applicable or unspecified• 1 – fetus 1• 2 – fetus 2• 3 – fetus 3• 4 – fetus 4• 5 – fetus 5• 9 – other fetus

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• Coding Note: The note at the beginning of Chapter 15 specifies the use of an additional code from category Z3A, Weeks of gestation, to identify the specific week of the pregnancy. This is found in the alphabetic Index under Pregnancy, weeks of gestation.

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Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period P00-P96

• Review Coding Guideline I.C.16.a.1.• Newborn records only • Never on maternal records and • Include conditions that have their origin in the fetal or

perinatal period – before birth through the first 28 days after birth – even if morbidity occurs later.


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Categories P07 and P08

• When both birth weight and gestational age of the newborn are available

• Code both should be coded with birth weight sequenced before gestational age.

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Terminology Updates

• P00-P04 Newborn affected by maternal factors and by complications of pregnancy, labor and delivery

• The phrase “suspected to be” include in the code title as a nonessential modifier– P00.3 Newborn (suspected to be) affected by other

maternal circulatory and respiratory diseases– P00.4 Newborn (suspected to be) affected by maternal

nutritional disorders– P00.5 Newborn (suspected to be) affected by maternal


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Z38 Liveborn Infant

• Classifies liveborn– Place of birth– Type of delivery

• Principal code– Initial record– Newborn

• Not Used– On mother’s record

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Congenital Malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

Q00-Q99• When no unique code is available, assign additional code(s)

for any manifestations• When the code assignment specifically identifies the

malformation, deformation, or chromosomal abnormality, manifestations that are an inherent component of the anomaly should not be coded separately

• Additional codes should be assigned for manifestations that are not an inherent component

• Code may be primary or secondary dependent on the reason for the encounter


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Codes may be used for the lifetime of the patient.• If congenital malformation has been corrected, a

personal history code is used• Although present at birth, abnormality may not be

identified until later in life, and if diagnosed by physician, assign a code from codes Q00-Q99

• For birth admission,– the appropriate code from category Z38, Liveborn infants,

according to place of birth and type of delivery, should be sequenced as the principal diagnosis,

– followed by any congenital anomaly codes, Q00-Q89.

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Symptoms, Signs and Abnormal Clinical and Laboratory Findings

• No more specific diagnosis can be made even after all facts have been investigated

• Signs or symptoms existing at time of initial encounter - transient and causes not determined

• Provisional diagnosis in patient failing to return• Referred elsewhere before diagnosis made• More precise diagnosis not available• Certain symptoms, for which supplementary

information is provided, that represent important problems in medical care in their own right


Ch. 18

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• Substantial classification change• Various types of hematuria coded in Chapter 18• Unless included with the underlying condition• Such as acute cystitis w/hematuria

– Code found in Chapter 14, Diseases of Genitourinary System

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Injury, Poisoning, and Certain Other Consequences of External Causes S00-T88

• Injuries grouped by body part rather than category of injury

• Head (S00-S09)• Neck (S10-S19)• Thorax (S20-29)

Ch. 19

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• Encompasses 2 alpha characters– S

• Injuries related to body region

– T• Injuries to

unspecified region• Poisonings, external


• Note: Use secondary code(s) from Chapter 20 to indicate cause of injury

• Codes within T section that include the external cause do not require an additional external cause code

Injury, Poisoning, and Certain Other Consequences of External Causes S00-T88

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• Greater specificity– Type of fracture– Specific anatomical site– Displaced (bones out of alignment) versus – Nondisplaced (bones do not move out of alignment)– Laterality– Routine vs delayed healing– Nonunion– Malunion– Type of encounter

• Initial• Subsequent• Sequela

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FracturesSeventh Character Definitions

• Initial encounter– The patient is receiving active treatment for the

condition• Surgical treatment• Emergency department encounter• Evaluation and treatment

by a new physician• Subsequent encounter

– After active treatment for the condition and receiving routine care during healing or recovery phase

• Cast change or removal• Removal of external or internal fixation device• Medication adjustment• Other aftercare and follow-up visits following

injury treatment• Sequela

– Complications or conditionsthat arise as a direct result of a condition

• Scar formation after burn – Use both the injury code that precipitated

sequela and code for sequela

A – Initial closed

B – Initial open

D – Subsequent


G – Subsequent


K – Subsequent nonunion

P – Subsequent malunion

S - Sequela

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Burns and Corrosions T20-T32

• Corrosion – new term added to ICD-10-CM• Burn

– Identify thermal burns from a heat source– Burns from electricity and radiation

• Corrosions– Burns due to chemicals

• Exception– Sunburn (L55.0-L55.9)

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Poisonings by and Adverse Effects ofDrugs, Medicaments, and Biological Substances T36-T50

• No different category codes for poisonings versus adverse effect

• Single category for a specific drug are codes for poisonings, adverse effects, and underdosing

• Underdosing– Taking less of a medication than is prescribed – With a resulting negative health consequence

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• Coding Note: ICD-10-CM categories S52, Fracture of forearm; S72, Fracture of femur; and S82, Fracture of lower leg, including ankle, have additional seventh characters (B, C, E, F, H, J, M, N, Q, R) to identify open fractures with the Gustilo classification.

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Gustilo Classification

I •Low energy, Wound less than 1 cm

II •Greater than 1 cm with moderate soft tissue damage

III •High energy wound greater than 1 cm with extensive soft tissue damage

IIIA •Adequate soft tissue cover

IIIB •Inadequate soft tissue cover

IIIC •Associated with arterial injury

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External causes of morbidityV00-Y99 (V,W,X,Y) Ch.20

• External cause code may be used with any code in range A00.0-T88.9, Z00-Z99, that is health condition due to external cause

• Assign external cause code, with appropriate seventh character for each encounter for which injury or condition is being treated – Initial encounter– Subsequent encounter – Sequela

• Most applicable to injuries, – also valid for other use – i.e., infections or heart attack occurring

during strenuous physical activity

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Transport Accidents

• A transport accident is one in which vehicle must be moving or running or in use for transport purposes at the time of the accident

• Definitions of transport vehicles provided in classification

• Transport Note– Use additional code to identify– Airbag injury (W22.1)– Type of street or road (Y92.4-)– Use of cellular telephone at time of transport accident


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Category Y92Place of occurrence

• Use with activity code• Only on initial encounter• Only one Y92 code on record• Do not use Y92.9 if place not stated

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Category Y93Activity

• Use with Y92 and Y99• Only on initial encounter• Only one Y93 code on record• Do not use Y93.9 if activity not stated• Not applicable to poisonings, adverse effects,

misadventures or late effects

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• Coding Note: The seventh character must always be the seventh character in the data field. If a code that requires a seventh character is not six characters, a placeholder X must be used to fill in the empty characters.

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Factors Influencing Health Status and contact with health services Z00-Z99

• Z Codes Reason for Encounter• When person who may or may not be sick encounters

health services for some specific purpose. – to receive limited care or service for current condition, – donate an organ or tissue, – receive prophylactic vaccination, – discuss problem

• When some circumstance or problem is present which influences person’s health status but is not a current illness or injury (History)


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• Z08 Encounter for follow up examination after completed treatment for malignant neoplasm

• Z23 Encounter for immunization.

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How You Can Prepare NOW?

• Review Guidelines specific to most common codes• Identify codes which may require more specific

documentation• Code top 20-30 codes and review with medical providers• Update forms and templates to capture specific

information – Laterality– Side of dominance– Asthma severity– Fracture details

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THANK YOUQuestions?

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ICD-10-CM: The Complete Official Draft Code Set 2013 (Optum)• Introduction • ICD-10-CM Draft Conventions • ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting

(Draft 2013)• ICD-10-CM Index to Diseases and Injuries • ICD-10-CM Neoplasm Table • Table of Drugs and Chemicals • ICD-10-CM Index to External Causes • ICD-10-CM Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries

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• Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services website– http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Coding/ICD10/index.html


– http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Coding/ICD10/Downloads/ICD10SmallMediumPracticeHandbook.pdf

• NHLBI’s National Asthma Education and Prevention Program– http://nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.pdf

• Novitas-Solutions Jurisdiction H Part B Outreach website– https://www.novitas-solutions.com/bulletins/mln/index.html

• Open Fracture: Gustilo Classification– http://www.eatonhand.com/clf/clf256.htm