ICES WGMASC REPORT Reports/Expert...آ  ICES WGMASC REPORT 2012 | 1 . Executive summary . The ICES Working

Embed Size (px)

Text of ICES WGMASC REPORT Reports/Expert...آ  ICES WGMASC REPORT 2012 | 1 . Executive summary . The ICES...

  • ICES WGMASC REPORT 2012 SCICOM STEERING GROUP ON HUMAN INTERACTIONS ON ECOSYSTEMS

    ICES CM 2012/SSGHIE:15

    REF. SCICOM

    Report of the Working Group on Marine Shellfish Culture (WGMASC)

    20–23 March

    Sopot, Poland

  • International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer

    H. C. Andersens Boulevard 44–46 DK-1553 Copenhagen V Denmark Telephone (+45) 33 38 67 00 Telefax (+45) 33 93 42 15 www.ices.dk info@ices.dk

    Recommended format for purposes of citation:

    ICES. 2012. Report of the Working Group on Marine Shellfish Culture (WGMASC), 20–23 March, Sopot, Poland. ICES CM 2012/SSGHIE:15. 117 pp.

    For permission to reproduce material from this publication, please apply to the Gen- eral Secretary.

    The document is a report of an Expert Group under the auspices of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea and does not necessarily represent the views of the Council.

    © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

  • ICES WGMASC REPORT 2012 | i

    Contents

    Executive summary ................................................................................................................ 1

    1 Opening of the meeting ................................................................................................ 3

    2 Adoption of the agenda ................................................................................................ 5

    3 Identify emerging shellfish aquaculture issues and related science advisory needs for maintaining the sustainability of living marine resources and the protection of the marine environment (ToR a) ........................ 6

    4 Review the state of the knowledge on site selection criteria in molluscan aquaculture with particular reference to accessing and developing offshore facilities (ToR b) ....................................................................... 6

    4.1 Background............................................................................................................ 6

    4.2 Workplan ............................................................................................................... 7

    4.3 Definition of the term ”offshore aquaculture (OA)” ........................................ 7

    4.4 Summary of the reasons to move offshore ........................................................ 8

    4.5 Current stage of OA in ICES countries and beyond ...................................... 10 4.5.1 Conferences and feasibility studies on offshore aquaculture

    with special focus on shellfish cultivation .......................................... 10 4.5.2 Experiences in ICES member countries .............................................. 11 4.5.3 Candidates and Biological Research on OA ....................................... 17 4.5.4 Technical Research on OA .................................................................... 19 4.5.5 Economic considerations of OA ........................................................... 27

    4.6 Site-Selection Criteria ......................................................................................... 29 4.6.1 Bio-technical criteria (for animals and human equipment) ............. 29 4.6.2 Site-selection models ............................................................................. 30 4.6.3 Consumption suitability ....................................................................... 31 4.6.4 Ecological criteria ................................................................................... 31 4.6.5 Economical criteria ................................................................................ 31 4.6.6 Social and ICZM criteria ....................................................................... 32

    4.7 Recommendations .............................................................................................. 32

    4.8 References ............................................................................................................ 32

    5 Review knowledge and report on the significance and implications of bivalve aquaculture transfers between sites (local, national, international) to wild and cultured bivalve stocks: implications (ToR c) ...................................................................................................................................... 39

    5.1 Background.......................................................................................................... 39

    5.2 Related reports of WGITMO and WGEIM ...................................................... 40 5.2.1 2007 of the WGITMO ............................................................................. 40 5.2.2 2008 of the WGITMO ............................................................................. 40 5.2.3 2009 of the WGITMO ............................................................................. 41 5.2.4 2010 of the WGITMO ............................................................................. 41 5.2.5 2005 report of the WGEIM .................................................................... 42

  • ii | ICES WGMASC REPORT 2012

    5.2.6 2006 report of the WGEIM .................................................................... 43 5.2.7 2007 report of the WGEIM .................................................................... 43 5.2.8 2008 report of the WGEIM .................................................................... 44

    5.3 Focus of WGMASC............................................................................................. 44

    5.4 Work plan and report outline ........................................................................... 44

    5.5 Potential effects and implications ..................................................................... 45 5.5.1 Develop the stock and new habitats .................................................... 45 5.5.2 Transfer of macro parasites and pests ................................................. 45 5.5.3 Transfer of biotoxins, cysts, larvae and eggs ...................................... 46 5.5.4 Transfer of micro parasites and diseases ............................................ 47 5.5.5 Transfer of human pathogenic agents bacteria and viruses ............ 50 5.5.6 Genetic effects of transfers .................................................................... 51 5.5.7 Impact of transfer on biodiversity ....................................................... 53

    5.6 Scientific tools to support policy decisions on cultured shellfish transfer issues ...................................................................................................... 55 5.6.1 Risk assessments .................................................................................... 55 5.6.2 Epidemiology and models of propagation of invasive

    species ...................................................................................................... 56 5.6.3 Surveillance and Biosecurity Measures .............................................. 56

    5.7 Recommendations to farmers and policy makers .......................................... 58 5.7.1 Recommendations to farmers .............................................................. 58 5.7.2 Recommendations to policy makers ................................................... 59 5.7.3 Maintain an open dialogue ................................................................... 60

    5.8 Recommendations .............................................................................................. 61

    5.9 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 62

    5.10 References ............................................................................................................ 64

    6 Review the state of knowledge on the evidence for and effect of climate change on shellfish aquaculture distribution and production in ICES and countries worldwide (ToR d) .............................................................. 70

    6.1 Background.......................................................................................................... 70

    6.2 Related ICES activities on Climate Change ..................................................... 71

    6.3 Background on Climate Change and Effects on Marine Ecology ................ 73

    6.4 Available Evidence on Climate Change Effects on Shellfish Aquaculture ......................................................................................................... 76 6.4.1 Effects of Temperature Change on Shellfish Species

    Distribution ............................................................................................. 77 6.4.2 Ocean Acidification Effects on Shellfish ............................................. 82

    6.5 Responsiveness of Existing Conservation and Protection Policies to Climate Change Issues ....................................................................................... 89

    6.6 Summary and Recommendations .................................................................... 89

    6.7 References ............................................................................................................ 91

    7 Develop a workplan for new Terms of Reference (ToR e) .................................. 96

  • ICES WGMASC REPORT 2012 | iii

    8 Collaborate with WGEIM to discuss how to revitalize the issue of sustainability in aquaculture