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Conditional Clause and Main ClauseIf I have enough money, I will go to Japan. conditional clause main clause I will go to Japan, if I have enough money main clause conditional clause

First, Second, and Third Conditional1. First conditional: If I have enough money, I will go to Japan. 2. Second conditional: If I had enough money, I would go to Japan. 3. Third conditional: If I had had enough money, I would have gone to Japan.

Conditional clause1. If + Present Tense

Main clausewill + inf / present tense / imperative

a. If you help me with the dishes (if + pres), I will help you with your homework. (will + inf) b. If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by three, the number is divisible by three (Pres. tense) c. If you see Mr Fox tonight, tell him I am ill. (imperative). 2. If + Past Tense 3. If + Past Perfect Tense would + inf would have + past participle

We do not normally use will or would in the conditional clause, only in the main clause.

Uses of the Conditional1. First conditional a. Nature: Open condition, what is said in the condition is possible. b. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time. e.g. If he is late, we will have to go without him. If my mother knows about this, we are in serious trouble.

2. Second conditional a. Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations. b. Time: present; the TENSE is past, but we are talking about the present, now. e.g. If I knew her name, I would tell you. If I were you, I would tell my father. Compare: If I become president, I will change the social security system. (Said by a presidential candidate) If I became president, I would change the social security system. (Said by a schoolboy: improbable) If we win this match, we are qualified for the semifinals. If I won a million pounds, I would stop teaching. (improbable)

3. Third conditional a. Nature: unreal b. Time: Past (so we are talking about a situation that was not so in the past.) e.g. If you had warned me, I would not have told your father about that party.(But you didn't, and I have).

Remember!1. The conditional construction does not normally use will or would in if-clauses. EXCEPTION: If will or would express willingness, as in requests, they can be used in ifclauses. e.g. If you will come this way, the manager will see you now. I would be grateful if you would give me a little help. (= please, come this way; please, give me...) 2. For the second conditional, were replaces was: If I were a rich man... 3. After if, we can either use "some(-one, -where...)" or "any(-one, -where...). If I have some spare time next weekend....or : If I have any spare time... 4. Instead of if not, we can use unless. e.g. I'll be back tomorrow unless there is a plane strike. He'll accept the job unless the salary is too low. 5.There is a "mixed type" as well, for the present results of an unreal condition in the past: If + Past Perfect - would + inf. If you had warned me [then], I would not be in prison [now].

IF Clause Type 1Form if + Simple Present, will-Future Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation. The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address. Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-Future on how to form negative sentences. Example: If I dont see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening. Use Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic so we think it is likely to happen. Example: If I find her address, Ill send her an invitation. I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it. Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari. I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.

IF Clause Type 2 Form if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive) Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation. The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address. Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on how to form negative sentences. Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldnt stay here. Were instead of Was In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use were even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it . Example: If I were you, I would not do this. Use Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine what would happen if Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation. I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address. Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari. I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.

IF Clause Type 3

Formif + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation. The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address. Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Past Perfect and Conditional II on how to form negative sentences. Example: If I hadnt studied, I wouldnt have passed my exams.

UseConditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled. Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation. Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address, however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation. Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari. I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.

Type I

Type I.

if-clauseIf / Unless / If .......not + present tense

+ main clause + future I + shall / will / can / may / might + verb

Form

If I learn my vocabulary,

I'll get a good mark

or the other way round: main clause + if-clause shall / will / can / may / might + verb + present simple present tense

I'll get a good mark. Function

if I learn my vocabulary

open condition: Probable action/result in the future according to a real condition You'll catch the train if you leave before ten. Lehrplan: Type I and II in form 7 and 8 if vs. when

Curriculum Lehrbuch: previously done: future I present tense

1. form: if - plays, - main clause -future I if - unless

2. function

Difficulties

open conditions What's condition - what's consequence?

3. interlingual interferences No future tense in if-clauses if vs. when unless

4. other difficulties position of the if-clause operating instructions making appointments warnings or possible rewards suggestions

Situations

Type II

Type II: if-clauseIf / Unless / If .......not past tense,

+ main clause+ conditional I:+ should / would / could / 'd / might + verb

If I learnt my vocabulary, Formor the other way round: main clause

I'd get a good mark.+ if-clause

I'd get a good mark

if I learnt my vocabulary

If-clauses in front position are more emphatic. If-clauses in front position get a comma. Hypothetical statements Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future

Function

We'd have enough money for a new car if you found a good job. Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present

We'd buy a Rolls Royce if we were rich. Lehrplan: Type II in form 7 or 8 if I were you,

Curriculum

Lehrbuch: previously done:

past tense if-clause type I

1. form: if - played, - conditional I if - unless

2. function Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present: "virtual reality" no time indicated by past tense = today or tomorrow

Difficulties3. interlingual interferences No conditional tense in if-clauses if vs. when unless

4. other difficulties 'were' instead of 'was' (rest of old conjunctive) position of the if-clause dreams and nightmares mock examinations: testing a person exaggerated timidity (But if the bridge fell down....) reproaches

Situations

Type III

Type III: if-clause FormIf / Unless / If .......not + past perfect, If I had + -ed or 3rd form,

+ main clause+ conditional II + should / would/ could / might + have + verb+ed or 3rd form

If I had learnt my vocabulary,

I would have got a good mark.

or the other way round: main clause should / would/ co

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