Imagery (Mental Practice) Imagery helpful for improving memory and attentional skills Imagery helpful for improving memory and attentional skills Cognitive.

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    20-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Imagery (Mental Practice) Imagery helpful for improving memory and attentional skills Imagery helpful for improving memory and attentional skills Cognitive rehearsal of a physical skill in the absence of overt physical movement Cognitive rehearsal of a physical skill in the absence of overt physical movement Visualization - too simplistic Visualization - too simplistic Focuses more on overall performance, more multi-sensory Focuses more on overall performance, more multi-sensory
  • Slide 2
  • Uses of Imagery Potential uses? Potential uses? No practice vs. mental practice vs. physical practice No practice vs. mental practice vs. physical practice Feltz & Landers (1994) meta-analysis Feltz & Landers (1994) meta-analysis found greater effect sizes for imagery tasks with higher cognitive demands
  • Slide 3
  • Internal vs. External Imagery Imagery example Imagery example Internal vs. External Internal vs. External Which is preferable? Which is preferable? Internal = more kinesthetic information Internal = more kinesthetic information External = more visual External = more visual Preference of elite athletes? Preference of elite athletes?
  • Slide 4
  • Why does mental practice work? Neuromuscular Theory Neuromuscular Theory Develop a strong memory representation of the task Strengthen neural pathways better for lower skilled--more pathways to strengthen Not as effective for more complex tasks Suinn study
  • Slide 5
  • Why does mental practice work? Cognitive/Symbolic Learning Cognitive/Symbolic Learning Know what to do Code cognitive aspects of movement patterns Use imagery to produce cues that would be seen in actual practice or competition More efficient with more elite performers-- why?
  • Slide 6
  • Mastery vs. Coping Imagery Mastery = images of success, demonstrating competence Mastery = images of success, demonstrating competence Coping = images of failure, stress, circumstances not ideal, etc. Coping = images of failure, stress, circumstances not ideal, etc. Why would that be important? Why would that be important?
  • Slide 7
  • Implications for Interventions Imagery is a skill; must be practiced Imagery is a skill; must be practiced Inclusion of sensory information Inclusion of sensory information Use of relaxation prior to imagery Use of relaxation prior to imagery May be used to enhance memory of skill performance May be used to enhance memory of skill performance
  • Slide 8
  • Psychology of Injury October 22, 2002
  • Slide 9
  • Importance of Injury as a Topic
  • Slide 10
  • Importance 3-5 million (1993) to 17 million per year (1998) 3-5 million (1993) to 17 million per year (1998) Medical advances, but not psychological advances Medical advances, but not psychological advances Larson (1996) study of 482 ATs Larson (1996) study of 482 ATs
  • Slide 11
  • Importance of Injury Psychological variables that may influence injury Psychological variables that may influence injury Potential role of sport psychology to facilitate recovery Potential role of sport psychology to facilitate recovery Certain factors may be instrumental in prediction of injury--> prolong rehab-- >subsequent performance/emotional problems Certain factors may be instrumental in prediction of injury--> prolong rehab-- >subsequent performance/emotional problems
  • Slide 12
  • Model of Stress
  • Slide 13
  • Stressors Stress history contributes to the stress response directly Stress history contributes to the stress response directly Personality variables & coping may directly affect, or affect through the stress response Personality variables & coping may directly affect, or affect through the stress response
  • Slide 14
  • Stress Response Mechanisms that increase during stress Mechanisms that increase during stress High stress, personality traits that exacerbate stress response or few coping resources will have a different appraisal--> greater risk for injury High stress, personality traits that exacerbate stress response or few coping resources will have a different appraisal--> greater risk for injury
  • Slide 15
  • Personality Variables Related to Onset of Injury Risk-taking Risk-taking Anxiety Anxiety
  • Slide 16
  • Situational Variables Related to Onset of Injury Major & Minor Life Stresses (Stress History) Major & Minor Life Stresses (Stress History) Coping Resources Coping Resources
  • Slide 17
  • Effects of Injury Loss of social support system (sports in particular?) Loss of social support system (sports in particular?) Uncertainty about immediate future (circular relationship) Uncertainty about immediate future (circular relationship) Loss of confidence (circular again) Loss of confidence (circular again) Athletic identity (at high risk at retirement) if involuntary, higher risk. Thanatology Athletic identity (at high risk at retirement) if involuntary, higher risk. Thanatology
  • Slide 18
  • Psychological Response to Injury & Rehabilitation Wiese-Bjornstal et al. (1998): Integrated model of psychological response to teh sport injury and rehabilitation process Wiese-Bjornstal et al. (1998): Integrated model of psychological response to teh sport injury and rehabilitation process Personal factors, Situational factors affect cognitive appraisal, behavioral response, and emotional response, which affect recovery outcomes Personal factors, Situational factors affect cognitive appraisal, behavioral response, and emotional response, which affect recovery outcomes
  • Slide 19
  • Integrated Model Personal factors Personal factors Situational factors Situational factors
  • Slide 20
  • Integrated Model Core of model = arrows Core of model = arrows Dynamic process Dynamic process Cognitive appraisal should affect emotional responses, which will influence behavioral response Cognitive appraisal should affect emotional responses, which will influence behavioral response Why are there arrows going in a counterclockwise direction? Why are there arrows going in a counterclockwise direction?

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