Imagery Poets

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    Comparing Literary Works

    The Imagist PoetsEzra Pound (1885-1972 )

    As bo th an editor and apoet, Ezra Pound inspiredthe dramatic cha nges inAmerican poetry that ch arac terized the Modern Age.Pound 's insistence th at writers m ake it new led many

    poets to di scard the form s, tec hn iques, and ideas of the past and

    to experiment with new approaches to poet ry.Pound influ en ced th e work of th e Irish poet

    W illiam Burler Yeats, as weII as tha t of T. S. Eliot,William Carlos Williams, H. D., Marianne Moore,and Ernest H emingway a who's who of the literary voices of the age . H e is best remembered,however, for h is role in the developmentof Imagism.

    Despite his preoccupation with or iginality andinventiveness, Pound's work often drew upon thepoet ry of ancient cultures. Many of his poems arefilled with literary and histor ical allusions, whi chcan make th e poems difficul t to interpret withouthaving the approp riate background information.Fall From Grace In 1925, Pound settled in Ital y.Moti vated by th e mistaken belief th at a co untrygoverned by a powerful dict ator was the most conducive environme nt for the crea tio n of a rt, Poundbecame an outspoken supporter of Italian dict atorBen i to Mussolini during World War II. In 1943,the American government indic ted Pound fortreason; in 1945, he was arrested by Americantroops and imprisoned. A fter being flown bac k tothe United Sta tes in 1945, he was judged psychologically unfi t to sta nd trial and was confined toa hospital for th e crimina lly insan e. There herem ained until 1958, when he was released duelargely to th e efforts of the literary commun ity hehad so do ggedly supported over the years. H ereturned to Italy, where h e lived until his death .

    William Carlos Williams(1883-1963)

    Unlike hi s fellow Imagists,William Ca rlos i l l i spe nt most of hi s life ithe United Sta tes, wherehe pursued a double car eeras a poet and a pediatrician

    in N ew Jersey. He felt hisexpe riences as a doctor help Jd

    prov ide him with inspirati on as a poet , creditingmed icine for his ability to gain ent rance to . . .th e sec ret gardens of the self.The ch ild of immigrants, Will iams grew up

    speaking Spanish, French, and British English.Neve rtheless, he was e namored of Am ericanlanguage and life. He rejected the views of h isco llege friend, Ezra Pou nd, who be lieved in u:i ngallusion s to history, rel igion, and ancient literatur e. W illiams focused instead on capturing theessence of modern Am erican life by dep ictingordinary people, objec ts, and expe riences usingcurrent , everyday language. JThe Poetry of Daily Life In volumes such a.Spring and All (1923) and In the American Grain(1925), W illiams cap tured the essence of life and landscape. He avo ided offering explan tions,remarking th at a poe t should deal in No idea J butin things';--eoncrete images that speak for themselves, evoking emotions and ideas, .

    In his later work, W illiams departed rom PlureImagism in orde r to write more expa nsively. Hisfive-volume poem Paterson 194 58) explores theidea of a city as a symbol for a ma n. The poe n isbased on the real ci ty of Paterson , New

    W illiams continued to write even after hisfailing health forced him to gi ve up his medi calpractice. In 1963, he received a Pulitzer PrizJ forPictures from reughel and Other Poems, his fit tvo lume of poe try.

    726 Disillusion, Defiance, andDiscontent (1914-1 946)

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    H. D. Hilda Doolittle )(1886-1961 )In 19 13, whe n Ezra

    Pound reshaped three ofHild a Doo little's poemsand submi tted th em toPoetr) magazine under the

    name H. D., Imagiste, th e

    creating innovative musical lines in her poetry.With these unu sual tech n iques, H. D. focusedmuch of her poe try and prose on th e issues of herday World Wars I and II, the growing in terest inth e human psych e created by Sigmund Freud'swork, and th e blossoming film medium.

    In 1925, almost all of H . D.'s ea rly poems weregathered in Collected Poems, a volume th at alsocont ained her translations from th e Odysse) andfrom the Greek poe t Sappho, Sh e also wrote aImagist movement was born.The publication of th e poems also play-HiN)olytus Temporizes, which appeared inservt'ld to u n c ~ th e career of the youn g 1927 and two prose works Palimpsest (1926)poet , who continued to publish under the name and (1928). During the later stages ofH. D. throughout her life.her career, she focused on writing longer works, in Pennsylvania, Doolittle was only including an epic poem. H. D. is best remembered,fiftecb when she first met Ezra Po und, who was however, for her ea rly Imagist poet ry.stud)hng at the Un iversity of Pennsylvania . In 1911,

    Doolittle moved to London and renewed Jher at quaintance with Pound. She married Background on Imagisma elo Ie friend of his, th e English poet Imagism was a literary movement established in the earlyRichard A ldington, but the marriage strug- 1900s by Ezra Pound and other poets. As the name suggestsgled knd failed durin g World War I when the Imagists concentrated on the direct presentation of left to fight in France. Doolittle images or word pictures. An Imagist po em expressed theremained a short while in London, where essence of an object person or incident without p rovidingshe 0ecame a leader of the Imagist group. explanations. Through the spare clean presentation of anShe Jcturned to the United Sta tes ami set- image the Imagists hoped to freeze a single moment in timetled in Ca lifornia, where she remained for a and to captu re t he emotions of that moment. To accomplishthis purpose the Imagists used the language of eve rydayshe n oved to Switzerland , and lived thereyear before going back to England . In 1921, speech carefully choosing each word. They also shied away

    from traditional poetic patterns focusing instead on creatinguntil her death . new music al rhythms .Clas ically Inspired Like th e G reek The Imagists were strongly influenced by traditionallyric that she so greatly admired, H. D.'s Chinese and Japanese poetry. Many Imagist poems bearearlylpoems were brief, precise, and a close resemblance to the Japanese verse fo rms of haikudirec t. O ften emphasizing light , co lor, and tanka wh ich generally evoke an emotional responseand Ihysical textures, she created vivid, through the presentation of a single image or a pair ofemotive images. Like o ther Imagist contrasting images.Ipoets , H. D. used eve ryday speec h, The Imagist movement was short-lived last ing only untilcare fully and sparingly chosen to evoke about 1918. However for many years that followed thean eruot ional respon se, to freeze a single poems of Pound Williams HD. and other Imagists contin in time. She also abando ned ued to influence the work of other poets including WallaceStevens 1.S. Eliot and Hart Crane .radi honal rhythmical pa tte rns, instead r

    The magis t Poets 727

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    PreviewConnecting to the LiteratureYou may know what it is like t have a song s tick in your mind, bu t

    have you ever had an image lodge there ? The poems you are about tread capture in words some of th e striking images th at lodged in theminds and emotions of the Imagists.Literary AnalysisImagist Poetry

    Im agist poems focus on evoking emotion and sparking the imagination th rough th e vivid presentation of a limited number of images. Ina S tation of the Metro, for example, presents j ust two images and co nsists o f o n ly two line s and fourteen well-chose n words. Few poems havebeen written that convey so much meaning with such brevity.Comparing Litera ry Works

    In h is essay A Few Don 'ts by an Imagiste, Ezra Pound describes th eimage as something more th an a simple word- picture. Instead, he says itis that which presents an in tellectual and emotional com plex in aninstant of time.

    For Pound , the image br ings the reader a new way of seein on th ephysical level th rough the senses, and on h igher levels through th e emotions an d intellect. As you read th ese poems, think about which on es bestachieve th e effect of that sense of sudden grow th th at Po und beli evedwas th e highest ach ieve ment of art.Reading StrategyEngaging Your Senses

    These poems are filled with viv id imagery words or phrases th atappea l t the senses . As you encoun ter each image, engage your sensesby re-creating in your mind th e sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and physicalsensat ion s associ ated with th e image. Als o note that some images appealt more th an one sense. For examp le, you can almost see an d feel thethickness in the ai r as H. D. ca lls on the wind in Heat :

    Cut the heat- / plow through it, / Turning it on either sideUse a chart like the one shown to record th e ways in whi ch you engageyour senses as you read th ese poe ms.Vocabulary D evelopmentvoluminous (va loom a nss) adj of apparition (ap a rish an) n. act ofenough material t fill volumes appearing or becoming visible (p. 734)(p. 729)dogma og rna) n. author ita tivedoctrines or beliefs (p. 729)728 isillusion efi nce and Discontent ( 1914- 1946)

    Isee the crowd,faces, petals

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    Few Don'ts y anIM GIST II Ezra PoundBac ground

    Ezra Pound was one of the leading figures in the Imagist movementAs the ame suggests , Imagists concentrated on the focused presentation ofimages or word-pictures. For example, Pound's original draft of "In a Stationof the fY1etro consisted of 30 lines. Pound whittled away at the poem until hearrived lat a work of only 14 words of great precision and power. In this essay,Pound p iscusses his beliefs about what poetry should and should not be.

    A n Image is that which presents an intellectual and emotionalcomplex in an instant of time. I use the term complex ratherin the technical sense employed by the newer psychologists, such asHart, tHough we might not agree absolutely in our application.

    It is fhe presentation of such a complex instantaneously whichgives sense of sudden liberation ; that sense of freedom from timelimits and space limits; that sense of sudden growth, which we experience in the presence of the greatest works of art.

    It is etter to present one Image in a lifetime than to producevolumil{ous works.

    All thi s , however, some may consider open to debate . The immediate nee ssity is to tabulate A LIST OF DON 'TS for those beginning towrite verses. But I can not put all of them into Mosaic riegative.?

    To bdgin with , consider the three rules recorded by Mr. Flint,3 .not as clogma- never consider anything as dogma-but as the resultof long .on templa tton , which, even if it is some one else's contemplation , m1y be worth consideration . .

    LJGUAGEUse I 0 superfluous word , no adjective, which does not revealIsometh ing.I

    1. Imagidte French for Imagist2. Mosait negative refers to the ten commandments presented by Moses to theIsraelit6s in the Old Testament of the Bible. Many of the commandments are in thenegati Ie and begin with the words "Thou shalt not :'3. the three rules recorded by Mr. Flint English Imagist poet Frank Stuart Flint notedthat poets adhered to the following three rules or guidelines.1. Direct treatment of the "thing," whether subjective or objective.

    2. To use absolutely no word that did not contribute to the presentation.3. As regarding rhythm 10 compose in sequence 1 the musical phrase. nol ins quence of a metronome.

    voluminous (va 165m' anas) adj. of enoughmaterial to fill volumes

    dogma (dog' rna) n.authoritative doctrinesor beliefs

    Reading heckAccording to Pound, whatis an image?

    A Few Donts by an lmagiste 729

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    Don't use such an expression as dim lands oj peace. t dulls theimage. It mixes an abstraction with the concrete. It comes from thewriter's not realizing that the natural object is always the dequ tesymbol.

    Go in fear of abstractions. Don't retell in mediocre verse what hasalready been done in good prose. Don't think any intelligent person isgoing to be deceived when you try to shirk all the difficulties of theunspeakably difficult art of good prose by chopping your compositioninto line lengths

    Don't imagine that the art of poetry is any simpler than the art ofmusic , or that you can please the expert before you have spent atleast as much effort on the art of verse as the average piano teacherspends on the rt of music

    RHYTHM ND RHYMEDon't imagine that a thing will go in verse just because it'stoo dull to go in prose.

    Don't be viewy -leave that to the writers of pretty little philosophic essays. Don't be descriptive; remember that the painter candescribe a landscape much better than you can. and that he has toknow a deal more about it.

    Literary nalysisImagist Poetry W yis this rule of avoidinqabstractions o n s i ~ t n twith the goals of Imagistpoetry?

    Critical Viewing What key details might be emphasized inan Imagist poem about this portrait of Ezra Pound? [Synthesize]

    730 Disillusion Defiance , and Discontent (1914-1946)

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    Wh en Shakespeare talks of th e "Dawn in ru sset mantle clad " heIpresen ts something which the painter does no t present. Th ere is inthis lirie of his nothing that one can call description; he presents

    Donit chop your stuff into s epara te i m 4 Don't make each lines top dead at the end. and then begin every next line with a he ave.Let th i beginning of th e next line catch the rise of the rhythm wave,unless lyou want a definite longish pause.

    In short. behave as a musician, a good musician , when dealingwith tHat phase of your art which has exact parallels in musi c . Th e

    Isame laws govern. and you are bound by no others . .A rhym e mus t have in it so me slight element of surprise if it is to

    give plea sure; it need no t be bizarre or cu rious, but it must be wellused lused at a ll. . . .

    Don 't mess up the perception of one sense by trying to define itin terms of another. Th is is u sually only the result of being too lazyto find Ith e exact word. To this clause th ere are possibly exceptions.

    The firs t th ree s imple proscriptions- will throw out nine-tenths ofIa ll the bad poetry now accepted as standard an d classic ; and willpreven you from many a crime of production II4. iambs (i' arnbz') n. metrical feet consisting of two syllables, the first unaccented. theother ;accented.5. The f irst three simple proscriptions reference to Flint's three rules outlined infoolnote #3.I

    Re iew and ssessThi king bout the SelectionI1. R espond: What is your reaction to Pound 's ideas about poetry?

    2. a) Recall: What three rules does Pound inv ite readers todonsider? (b) Define: What is the differen ce be tween dogma

    the results of " long co ntemp la t ion"?c) Speculate: Why did Pound prefer a list of "don 'ts" to a listf "do's"?

    3. a) Recall: What does Pound consider preferable toabstrac t ions? (b) Analyze: Why would th e use of abs trac tionsI'e offensive to an Imagist poet?

    4. (a ) Recall: Does Pound co nsider Sha kespeare's image andxa mple of description or pre sentat ion? (b) Distinguish: Howdoes pre sen tation d iffer from descri ption ?I5. (a) Recall: What rule does Pound suggest sho uld gov e rn th erh ythm of a poem? (b) Interpret: What does a good musi ciando tha t a poe t sho uld emulate?I6. Evaluate: Do you think foll owing Pound 's "do n' ts" wouldmake it easier or more difficult to write poet ry?

    eading StrategyEngaging Your SensesWhat phys ical sensationsare suggested by th erhythmic wave Poundadvocates

    A Few Don ts y an lmagiste 731

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    R i ~ ~ M e r c h a n t W i :

    zra Pound

    Whilemy ha ir wasstillcutstraightacrossmyforehead Literary Analys isIr played aboutthefrontgate , pullingflowers. ImagistPoetry Whatdetails inthissta rizaYou cameby onbamboostilts, playinghorse, aremosteffectivJ inYou walkedaboutmy seat, playingwithblueplums. . . I ?conveyinq an Image.5 Andwe wentonliving in thevillage ofChokan:I Two smallpeople ,withoutdislikeor suspicion. At fourteen r m arried MyLordyou . r neverlaughed,beingbashful. Loweringmy he ad, r lookeda t thewall.

    10 Called to, a thousand times, Ineverlooked back.AtfifteenIstopped scowling, Idesiredmydustto be mingledwithyours Foreverandfor everandforever. Why shouldr climb the lookout?

    15 At sixteenyou departed,You wentintofarKu-to-yen.?by the riverofswirlingeddies,Andyouh ave beengonefive months .Themonkeys m akesorrowfulnoise overhead.

    1. hokan (cho kan ) a suburb of Nanking , a city in the People s Republic of China.2. Ku-to-yen (koo to yen ) an island in the Yangtze (yarjk 56) River.

    732 s ll usion Defiance and Discontent (1914-1946)

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    YO U' dragged your feet when you went out.20 By th e gate now , the moss is grown , the different mo sses

    Tooldeep to clear them away!Th e leaves fall early this autumn , in wind .Th e' paired butterflies are alread y yellow with August

    the grass in the West ga rden;25 Th ey hurt me. I grow older.

    I f you are coming down through the narrows of the river Kiang,

    IPlease let me know beforehand,And I will come ou t to meet youAs far as Cho-fu-Sa.fy Rihaku

    3. Cho-fL-Sa (cho' foo' sin a beach along the angtze River, several hundred milesfrom Nanking.

    Literary nalysisImagist Poetry Whatdetails make this stanzaappeal to both the sensesand the emotions?

    Reading CheckWho is the speaker in thispoem? Whom does sheaddress?

    "Critical Viewing In what ways does the mood of this drawing

    mirror mood of The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter "? [ nalyze]I

    Q:ll:J:::;:"0C' :;u>""o'ro"6..c:cUJ:co. j




    A River Merchant s Wife: A Letter . 733

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    Ina tation etroof theEzra Pound

    The a pparition of these faces in the crowd; pp rition (ap a rlsh an)Petals on a wet, black bough. n. act of pp earingor becoming

    1. Metro the Paris subway.

    Review and ssessThinking About the Selections

    1. Respond: Of all the images contained in the two poems byEzra Pound, which did you find th e most striking? Why?

    2. (a) Recall: In "The River-Merch an t 's Wife," how old is thespeaker when she marries? (b) Compare and Contrast: Inwhat ways are her feelings for her husband at age fifteendifferent from those when she first marries?3. (a) Recal l: What happens when th e river-merchan t 's wife issixteen? (b) Analyze: How does she feel about thi s change?

    4. (a) Recall: In "In a S tation of th e Metro," what two thingsdoes Pound co mpare? (b) Interpret: In what ways does thi spoem capture the essence of a single momen t?(c) Analyze: Given the poem's sett ing, why is the image of"Petals on a wet, black bough" surprising?

    5. Take a Position: W hat do you like about Pound 's poetry?What do you dislike?Explain .

    7 4 Disillus ion, Defiance, and Discontent 1914- 1946

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    The RedWheelbarro\Nso muchdepends William arlos Williams

    ina redwh eelIbaITOW5 gl d withrain

    waterIbesideth ewhitechitkens .

    heGreat FigureWilliam arlos WilliamsIAmong th e rainIand ligh ts Isdw the figure5 in gold

    5 on a redIfire,lruck

    moving tense unne eded

    10 to gong clangssirenh owlsandwh eelsrumblingthrough th e darkcity.

    ritical Viewing ArtistCharles Demuth createdthis work ofartto accompany his Williams's poem.Whatelementsof hisillustrat ion conveytheenergyand Iclamorofthepoem? [ onnect]I The Red Wheelbarrow/The Grea t igure 735

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    T U TTWilliamCarlosWilliams

    have eatenth eplumsthat were inthe icebox

    5 andwhichyou were probablysaving for breakfastForgive me

    10 theywere deliciou s so sweetand socold

    Review and ssessThinking About the Selections

    1. Respond: Which ofthe threepoemsbyWilliamsevokesth estrongest emotionalrespo nseinyou ? Why?

    2 . (a) Classify: In"TheRedW heelbarrow,"towhatsensesdoes the imageappea lmost? (b) Analyze: Inwhatway does this poem reflect the Imagistemphasisontheconc rete?

    3. (a) R ecall: Which wordshasWilliamsdivided t runontwosepara te lines? (b) Analyze: What isthe effect ofthis arrangement ofwords? 4. (a) Recal l: In "T heGrea t Figure," whatdetail is th e focus ofthe speaker's experience ofthe fire truck ? (b) Interpret: Infocusingon thisdetail,whatmightWilliamsbesayingaboutbeautyandmodern life?

    5. (a) R ecall: What isth e intent ion ofthespeakerin "ThisIsJust to Say"? (b) Connect: Wh ich detailsin the seco nd stanzacha llenge the speaker'ssincerity?

    6. Evaluate: Which elementsofth esepoemsreflect Williams'sinterest inportrayin andcelebrating-eve rydayA mericanlife?

    736 Disillusion Defiance and iscontent (9 - 1946)

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    Silver dustlifted from the earthhigher th an my a rms reach you have mounted 0 silv erhigh er than my arm s re achyou front us with great mass;


    no flower ever openedso sta u nch a white leafno flower ever parted s ilverfrom s uch rare s ilver;

    Critical ViewingWhich phr ases from thepoem best describe thisimage of a pear tree infull flower? [ valuate]


    o white pearyou r flower -tuftsthick on the branchbring su mmer and ripe fruitsin their purple hearts .

    Reading CheckWhat image does thepoet use to describethe pe ar t ree flowers?

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    HEATH. D.

    owind , rend open the heat, cu t apart the heat , rend it to tatters . Fruit cannot drop

    5 through th is th ick a irfruit cannot fall intoheatthat pres ses up and bluntsthe points ofpearsand round s the grapes .

    10 Cut the h eatplowthrough it .turning it on eith er sideofyour path.

    Review and AssessThinking About the Selections

    1. Respond: Howdo these two poemsbyH .D.makeyou feel?2. (a) Recall: What isthe"silverdust" referred to in thefirst

    stanzaof "Pea r Tree" ? (b) Interpret: In what se nse isthesilverdust" lifted from th eearth"?

    3. (a) Recall: What does the pear tree'sblossomanticipate?(b) Inf er: What timeofyearisthe speakerdescribing?4. (a) Recall: In "Heat,"wha tis the reaction of the fruitto th e

    air?(b) Interpret: Whatspecific type ofheat isthe speakerdescribing?

    5. (a) R ecall: Whi ch verbsdoes the speakeruse to describelesseningt he heat ? (b) Analyze: What impressionofth e heat do th ese verbs create?

    6. Generalize: Basedon th ese twopoems,how wouldyoudefine th epoet 'srelatio nsh ip to nature?

    738 Disillusion efi nce and iscontent (1914-1946)

    Critical ViewingDoes this p inting capturethe opp ressive heat of ahumid summer day aseffectively as the poemdoes? Explain . [Evaluate]

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    s Literary AnalysisImagist Poetry

    1. Does The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter" qualify as a purelyImagist poem? Why or why not?

    2. What effect does Pound's choice of the word apparition-commonlyused to describe a ghostly figure-to mean "appearance" contribute to "In a Station of the Metro"?

    Comparing Literary Works3. In what ways is Pound's advice to (a) avoid abstractions and

    (b) avoid superfluous words evident in all of these poems ?4. (a) Use a chart like the one shown to compare and contrast

    the use of color in the poems by H . D. and Williams. (b) Whatemotions do these uses of color evoke ?

    Quick ReviewImagist poetry focuses onevoking emotion nd vividmental associationsthrough the presentationof concise unadornedimages.

    foiiiio.. ;; ;;:;o==---t. ' 11>1 =5. Although Pound wrote "the painter can describe a landscape much

    better than you can," in what ways are these poems like paintings?6. Which of these poems best exemplifies Pound's idea of the image

    as that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex inan instant of time"? Explain your choice.

    Reading StrategyEngaging Your Senses

    7. What other senses, besides sight, can you engage to re-createthe images of "Petals on a wet, black bough"? Explain .

    8. Identify two examples of passages in The River-Merchant's Wife"in which you were able to engage the sense of smell.

    Extend Understanding9. Literature Connection: The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter"is an adaptation of a poem by the Chinese poet Li T'a i Po. What

    challenges and opportunities face a poet in translating a work ofliterature from one language and culture to another?

    By eng ging your sensesyou can fully experiencethe images in poetry.

    _ Take ttotheNetwww.phschool.comTake the interactiveself-test online to checkyour understanding ofthese selections.

    The magist Poets 7 9

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    Vocabulary Development LessonWord Analysis Forms of ppe r

    Several common English words are forms ofthe verb appear, meaning "to come into sight orinto being" or "to become understood."

    apparent appearance apparitionComplete each of the following sentences

    with the correct word from the list above.1. He made a brief ? at the awards

    dinner-just long enough to pick up histrophy and say a few words.

    2. When midnight found the toddlers stillrunning around the house, it became

    ? that the babysitter was no longerin control.

    3. TILe ? of a face at the windownearly stopped her heart with fear.

    Grammar and Style LessonConcrete and Abstract Nouns

    Nouns can be classified according to the itemthey name. A concrete noun names somethingthat can be perceived with one or more of thefive senses. Concrete nouns have a physical, tangible reality. An abstract noun names somethingthat cannot be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, ortouched. These may be qualities, characteristics,emotions, or ideas that are not perceived mainlythrough the senses.

    Concrete: I played about the front gate,pulling flowers.

    Abstract: Two small people, without clisW eor suspicion.

    Concept Development SynonymsSelect the letter of the best synonym, or word

    of similar meaning, for the numbered word.1. dogma: (a) doctrine, (b) legality,

    (c) statement2. voluminous: (a) loud, (b) arrogant,

    (c) comprehensive3. apparition: (a) suspicious, (b) vision,(c) face

    Spelling StrategyYou may need to drop the cl when adding the

    prefix d to a word or word stem beginning withthe consonants p g s, or c. If so, you must alsodouble the consonant, as in appear. Use thisprinciple to correctly spell the words below.

    1. d gressor 2. d sign 3. d prove

    Practice Label the italicized nouns in thesesentences as either concrete or abstract.

    1. Don't use such an expression as "dim landsof peace."

    2. The leaves fell early this autumn, in wind.3. I saw the figure 5 in gold on a red fire truck

    moving tense unheeded to gong clangs sirenhowls and wheels rumbling through thedark city.

    4. Cut the heat-plow through it5. I have eaten the plums that were in the

    icebox and which you were probablysaving for breakfast.

    Looking at Style Explain why you would expectto find mainly concrete nouns in an Imagist poem.

    Jt16 Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Connection Chapter 17 Section 1740 Disillusion, Defiance, andDiscontent (1914-1946)

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    Writing LessonAn Editor s Review of Manuscript

    Imagine that you are a magazine editor who has just received a manuscript froman Imagist poet. Write a letter to the poet explaining why you will or will not pub lishhis or her poems. Be simple, honest, and kind, and include constructive criticism.

    Prewriting Choose poet and reread th e poems. Take notes on the strengthsand weaknesses of eac h poem, citing relevant passages.

    Drafting Write a let ter that explains why you will or will not publish thepoems. Discuss strengths, and iden t ify flaws. Select specific wordsth at best convey your meani ng.

    Revising Review your draft, highlighting any words that are inac curate orvague. Then, replace those words with bette r, more spec ific choices.

    ModelRevising orBrevity and Clarity )deceptively simple Replacing vaguewords with specificYour poems are small and \ m p e x ut are rich in imagerywrywords helps to expressand ideas. I especially enjoyed theiner isle-tone of This Is ideas exactly.

    u t to Say. I-7t 6 Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar onnection: hapter 16, Section-Extension Activities Research and Technology Se lect one of theListening and Speaking Of "The Red Wheel Imagist poems and illu strate it, eithe r with artbarrow," Roy Harvey Pearce writes: "At its worst works of your own or with cl ippings or printoutsthis is togetherness in a chickenyard. At its best from magazines, the Internet, and other is an exercise in the creation of the poetic out If possible, create your illustrat ion using graphicof the anti-poetic." Wh ich view do you hold? arts software and in tegrate them in a file with theDefend your view in an informal debate with text of the poe m. Then, post your work in theclassmates. To prepare, keep these tips in mind : classroom with a brief exp lana tio n of its imagery, Find examples to support both positions, and use it as the basis for an ora l interpretationand then decide wh ich you will argue. or read ing of the poem .

    Use examples for the opposi ng side todevelop arguments against that position. Take t to the et www

    As you debate, be as clea r and as eloquent as Go online for an additional research activitypossible. [Group Activity] using the Internet

    The magist Poets 741