Imaginefx How to Draw and Paint Anatomy 2010

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I F A N T A SY

S C I-F I D IG IT A L A R T

P R E S E N T S

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Master the proportions, poses, bones and muscles of animais

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FROM HEAD TO FOOTHow to draw and connect the simple shapes that make up the human body

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Learn practical drawing skills and technicjues from professional artists

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ANATOMYW e lc o m e ...Ify o u re reading this, the chances are yo ure an aspiringartist on a journey o f self-improvement. W hether you're at college, hoping to become a professional artist or just w ant to create art for yourself, yo u ve come to the right place. The follow ing pages in this special edition o f Im agineFX are filled to bursting point w ith the best anatom y advice around. Every page is packed w ith easy to follow, step-by-step guidance on how to create better hum an and creature figures, w ritten and illustrated by professional artists. Essentially, its years o f attending art college distilled into one magazine. The accom panying disc provides you w ith an opportunity to get closer to the annotated sketches, watch videos o f anatom y drawing in action, and see high-resolution digital art files to help you learn how to take your sketches into digital art software. For those o f you w ho are new to the world o f Im agineFX, turn to page 97 to see just a fraction o f the digital art workshops that we feature every m onth in Im agineFX. Also, make sure you check out page 115 for a sneak preview o f what's com ing up in our FIow T o D raw And Paint series. W e're sure yo u 'll love them ali. Ify o u have any questions, please get in touch w ith me at the em ail address below.

IIO W T O DRAVV A M D P A IN T

Claire Howlett, Editor claire@imagincfx.com

From the makers o f

W e're th e o n ly m ag azin e d ed icated to fa n ta sy an d sci-fi art. O u r aim is to help a rtists to im p ro ve b o th th e ir trad itio n al an d d ig ita l a rt sk ills. V isit w w w .iin a g in e fx .c o m to fin d ou t m ore!

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n vAs you construct your figure, try to use long, flowing lines so that the drawing starts to feel alive, even at this early stage. > (ku. T

Imagine

Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

Exploring the Industrial Design drawina methodUse basic geometric shapes to make your figures feel solid and three-dimensionalH ere, I'm g o in g to lo o k at a sec o n d ab stra c t a p p ro a c h to fig u r e d ra w in g : th e In d u str ia l D e sig n m e th o d . Its o r ig in s a re a g e -o ld , b u t it w a s p erfecte d at th e A rt C e n te r o f P asa d e n a in th e 1950s. I fin d In dustrial D esign th e m ost practical tech n iq u e to u se w h en creating the figure for an y p u rpo se. It m akes it ea sy to control th e p o se an d ach ieve con vin cin g fo resh orten in g painlessly. First, y o u need to sort the head, neck an d shoulders. ITiese p rovid e a startin g p o in t to b u ild the figu re gesture from . V iew ed from th e front, th e head is an o v al shape, w h ile in p rofile o r sid e view , it's a bloated tria n g u la r fo rm . T he corn ers o f th e trian gle depict th e tilt o f th e head. T he p an ei b e lo w sh o w s so m e exam plesHere the figure is rendered with hatch lines. creating an immediate illusion of form. The lines Crossing over the form are Crossing in the short stroke direction. This cartoon character is fully realised using the shape design approach from life drawing. The technique can be used for any figure.

o f cylin d er figures in gesture poses, w hich is w hat y o u have to fin d n exi. T h e gesture o f th e p ose is a flu id , flo w in g line: it s th e big sw eep in g m ovem en t th a ts m ade betw een th e u p p er an d th e low er h alves o f th e body.

It sh ou ld b e graceful, an d is id eally established in o n e o r tw o c u r v y lines. A dd to y o u r first line a secon d line, w hich describ es the w id th o f the p ose. T h is helps establish the o verall vo lu m e o f the figure - h e av y o r lean. T hese tw o lines should m irro rea ch other, m o v in g in relation sh ip to o n e another. Lin e three is the centre line o f th e pose, attached to the pit o fth e neck. W ith a centre lin e d raw n , y o u can n ow draw an ellip se o r o v a l. T h is d escribes the depth o f th e fo rm . T h e centre lin e gives you an o th er point y o u can n ow c o n v in cin gly attach th e oval to, tu rn in g y o u r three lines into an active cylin d rical form . C ylin d ers are easier to d raw th a n a cube

DRAWING CYLINDER FIGURES IN GESTURE POSES

Usecylindrical forms to start every figure if you can. Cylinders are easy to draw and can easily be broken down into threedimensional forms. In extremely foreshortened poses, overlapping ovais representing the lengthier forms will work.

fo rm , as y o u need to k n o w perspective to m ake cubes look con vincin g. C ylinders, i f d raw n correctly in perspective, g ive the v iew er a strong sense o f position in space. T h e should ers are th e top p oint o f the cylin der, the p elvis its bottom . T he p elvis varies in sh ap e d ep en d in g on w hat character y o u re d raw in g. It can be d raw n as a soft, sphere-like sh ap e - th in k o f it as a m arsh m a llo w - o r c a n be m ore d efin ed . Y ou r su b jects g en d er d eterm in es the p elvis shape. l-em ale p elvises are m ore bello r skirt-shaped; m ale p elvises are m ore box-sh aped . T h e front o f the p elvis term in ates in a bullet-like shape. T h is is d raw n inside the b o d y c ylin d er shape,

Imagine

Presents Anatomy

Basic forms

You can map shadows to the shapes you design on the scaffolding of the figure, with the patterns falling appropriately over the shapes youVe drawn rather than drawing exactly what you see. The illusion of the drawing can suffer if you stick too rigidly to what you see without really thinking about how the forms are functioning in 3D space.

THE FIGURE AS AN S-SHAPEDraw the ribcage as if looking up at it, with lines arching upward. Draw the pelvis with lines arching down. This keeps the forms tilted correctly to the viewer from straight-on.

crests, th e n avel an d th e arm pits. I f y o u r figures back is visible, th e scapulae, the d im p les o f th e sacrum , the ob liq u es an d th e base o f th e p elvis are also help fu l to u se as lan dm arks. If the figu re is tw istin g o r turnin g, y o u can ea sily depict th is m ovem ent in th e cylin d er b y p in ch in g on e side, o r b y creating an accordionlike relation sh ip betw een the ribcage an d p elvis m asses. T h e o b liq u es p la y a role in sh ap in g th e c y lin d e r th e y are the third b u lg e on the com pressed side o f th e cylin der. T h ese bulges are describ ed u sin g S -c u rv e d lines (see the p an ei to th e right), th e o n ly lin e typ e in d raw in g that can generate p erspective in its o w n w avin ess. T h e S -c u rv e starts against th e outside o f o n e shape, then sw in gs o ver an d com pletes its circuit be lo w o n th e next succeed ing shape. Each S-cu rve generates a m ore con vin cin g illu sio n o f overlap p in g form s. You sh ou ld sw itch often betw een gesture a n d stru cture to strik e a b alanceThese drawings are fleshing out the dynamic movement in each pose. Using cylinders and dividing each segment of the cylinders into thirds. the scaffolding of the body is ready for muscles to be laid over them. The crosscontour lines help guide the muscles correctly around the form.

If a figure is twisting or turning, you can easily depict this movement in the cylinder by pinching one side 99cutting in on either sid e to sh o w the hip bones, th e iliac crests. N o w d raw an e g g sh ap e to indicate the ribcage, attaching it to th e sh o u id er line an d o n ly breach in g th e cylin d er form if' th e b o d y is com pressed o r tw istin g. T he rest o f th e torso is bu ilt u p u sin g ellipses o r traversin g lin es across the centre line, to sq u are u p the tw o h a lv es o f th e torso an d pelvis. T h e im p ortan t lan d m ark s to indicate are th e nipples, th e tenth ribs, th e iliac o f form an d m ovem ent, h o p e fu lly in a s im ila r d y n a m ic to M ich elan gelo o r R u bens - but w ith a m od ern flair, like that o f C la ire W en d lin g o r B ru ce T im m . O nce th e structure is d efin ed , m ove into gesture again, d raw in g th e cylin ders o f the a rm s a n d th e legs. W hen y o u r lim b s are d raw n in, m ove b a c k into structure a n d d efin e th e m uscles, then gesture again to d escrib e the m ovem ent o f th e sh ad o w patterns over th e m uscles, then structure to tighten them up.

Imagino

Presents Anatomy

O

he torso is th e core o f th e bo d y: i th e co m p lex centre fro m w h ich ali o u r d an g ly parts originate. O u r p hysical

head has m ore chance o f com p lem en tin g th e action o f the body. First, y o u need to fin d th e action o f the

d raw in g to a m ore correct scale th rou gh ou t th e pose. N ext, d raw a centre lin e th rou gh the m id d le o fth e torso. (Sim p ly put, th e c