Immigration & Urbanization Section 1: Renewed Immigration

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  • Immigration & UrbanizationSection 1: Renewed Immigration

  • The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus

    Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe freeStatue of Liberty, New York Harbor-Gift from France (1884)Ultimate symbol of freedom for new immigrants

  • Through the Golden DoorMillions of immigrants entered into the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lured by the promise of a better life

  • EuropeansOld Immigration1840s 1890sMost from Western & Northern EuropeIrelandEnglandGermanyScandinavia

  • EuropeansNew ImmigrationMainly 1890 1910Most from Southern & Eastern EuropeItalyAustria-HungaryPolandRussia

  • Why did so many Europeans leave their homelands?

  • Immigrants sought to escape difficult conditionsFamineIreland-Irish Potato Famine (1845-52)Land shortagesReligious/political persecutionBirds of PassagePeople who intended to stay temporarily to earn money before returning to their homelands

  • Russian JewsLeft to escape religious persecution following Russian Revolution of 1917PogromsOrganized attacks often encouraged by local authorities

  • PopulationBetween 1800-1900, Europes population doubled to 400 millionIncrease caused a scarcity of farm landFarmers competed with laborers for few industrial jobs

  • Chinese & JapaneseMany Asians came to the West Coast between 18511883Came to seek mining fortunes in gold (1849-50 Gold Rush)Helped build American railroadsTranscontinental railroadAfter the railroads, many turned to farming, mining, & domestic service (laundry)

  • West Indies & MexicoImmigrants from the islands of Jamaica, Cuba, & Puerto Rico came to the U.S. due to a scarcity of jobs 1902, Congress passes the National Reclamation ActEncouraged the irrigation of arid land to create new farmlandReclamation Act drew Mexican farm workers northward into the Southwestern U.S.

  • A Difficult JourneyImmigrants came to the U.S. by steamshipEuropean immigrants trip across the Atlantic for about 1 weekAsian immigrants trip across the Pacific took about 3 weeks

  • Many traveled in ships cargo holdsConditions on board Often crowded Gloomy, moistRarely allowed on deck for fresh airUnable to exerciseLice/rodent infestedShared toiletsDiseases spread quickly

  • Ellis IslandImmigration station in New York HarborDetained about 2 days for inspectionPhysical examinationSerious/contagious diseases sent homeLegal requirements Documents & criminal backgroundProve their worthAbility to work At least $25

  • Angel IslandImmigration station in San Francisco Asians experienced harsher treatmentDetained for weeksHeld in filthy buildingsDorms were usually packed with three tiered bunksWaited for immigration inspectors to admit/reject them

  • Cooperation for SurvivalOnce in the U.S., many immigrants faced many challenges Place to liveWorkLanguageCultureReligion, Customs

  • Cooperation for SurvivalEthnic communities started to developChinatown, Little Italy, Jewish QuarterImmigrants pooled their moneyBuilt churches or synagoguesFormed social clubs & mutual aid societies Published newspapers in native languages

  • Cooperation for SurvivalAs immigrants tried to adapt, they came to think of themselves as hyphenated AmericansPolish-AmericansItalian-AmericansChinese-AmericansCaused native-born Americans to see immigrants a threat to the American way of life

  • Immigration RestrictionsAs waves of immigrants increased, feelings of nativism grewNativismPreference for native-born people & a desire to limit immigrationFocused on ethnic background and also religious affiliationTargeted Catholics, JewsFelt they would undermine the Protestant foundation of the U.S.

  • Immigration RestrictionsNativists organized, forming two major anti-immigrant groupsAmerican Protective Association (1887)Founder: Henry BowersNortheast & MidwestAim: Hault Catholic immigrationWorkingmans Party of California (1870s)Founder: Denis KearneyThe WestAim: Stop Chinese immigration

  • Immigration RestrictionsCongress acted to pass anti-immigration legislationBanned convicts, paupers, & mentally disabled Placed a $.50 head tax on each newcomerAlso passed the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)First legislation to ban a specific group Banned entry to most Chinese with certain exceptions: teachers, students, merchants, tourist, & government officials

  • Gentlemens AgreementAnti-Chinese sentiment was transferred to the Japanese San Franciscos Board of Education began segregating Japanese childrenJapan protested the decision; President Teddy Roosevelt negotiated a deal with JapanGentlemans Agreement (1907)Japan agreed to end immigration to the continental U.S. as long as the U.S. agreed to allow the wives, parents, & children of residents to enter and also to repeal school segregation

  • Section 2:Challenges of Urbanization

  • Urban OpportunitiesUrbanizationRapid growth of cities mostly in the regions of the Northeast & MidwestRural to urban movementIncrease services & problemsHousingTransportationWaterSanitationCrimeFire

  • Immigrants Settle in CitiesWhy did people move to the cities?Cities offered a cheap & convenient place to liveLived close to workCities offered unskilled workers steady jobs in mills and factories

  • Immigrants Settle in CitiesAmericanization movementDesigned to assimilate people in American cultureSchools provided programs to teach immigrants skills needed for citizenshipEnglish literacyAmerican history & governmentSocial etiquette were also part of the curriculum Cooking, manners

  • Migration from Country to CityRapid improvements in farming was one reason city populations grewInvention of McCormick reaper & steel plow made farming more efficient Fewer farm laborers were needed to work the landFarmers could put more land under cultivation

  • Migration from Country to CityAfrican-Americans moved North & WestMoved to Chicago & Detroit to escape:Racial violenceEconomic hardshipPolitical oppressionsegregation

  • Urban ProblemsGhettos-sections of a city occupied by minority groups (aka immigrants) who live there due to social, economic, and legal pressure Housing-working class families in cities had two housing options:Buy a house on the outskirts of town & face transportation problemsRent cramped rooms in a boardinghouse in the central city

  • Urban ProblemsHousingAs population increased, new types of houses were designedRow housesSingle family dwellings that shared side walls with other similar housesTenements Single family dwellings that multiple families occupiedLow rent apts. Which met minimum standardsProblems with sanitation, plumbing, & ventilation

  • Urban ProblemsTransportationMass transitSystem of transportation designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routesSubways, Streetcars, &BussesAllowed workers to live in outlying communities to commute to work

  • Urban ProblemsWaterSupplying safe drinking water was a problem for most citiesAs populations grew, many residents had no waterPeople had to collect water in pails from faucets located on the streetDisease presented a greater problemCholera and typhoid feverTwo ways to make drinking water safer:Filtration, Chlorination

  • Urban ProblemsSanitationAs cities grew, the challenge of keeping them clean increasedHorse manure piled up in streetsSewage flowed through city streetsSmoke from factories spewed into the airGarbage piled up on the streetsTo combat sanitation cities hired sanitation workers to collect garbage and clean outhouses

  • Urban ProblemsCrimePickpockets and thievesPreyed on immigrantsNew York City became the first major metropolitan area to hire a full-time salaried police forceThe units were usually too small to have an impact

  • Urban ProblemsFireWhy was fire such a problem?Limited supply of a waterBuildings made from woodUsed kerosene or candles Volunteer firefighters were not always availableTo combat the fire threatCincinnati, Ohio established the nations first paid fire department Change in building codesSprinkler systemsUsed brick, stone or concrete as a building material

  • Settlement House Movement Social Gospel MovementPreached salvation through service to the poorEstablished settlement housesCommunity centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to immigrantsSent nurses to homes of sickProvided classes in English, health, & paintingJane AddamsEstablished Hull House in Chicago