2. Yu. M. Afanas'ev and L. A. Rybakov, ibid., pp. 121-122. 3. L. A. Rybakov, Yu. M. Afanas'ev, I. G. Shimko, and S. K. Chinennaya, Khim. Volokna, No.
6, 12-14 (1984).
IMPROVING THE WATER CONSUMPTION SYSTEM IN INDUSTRIAL PLANTS
V. V. Shibalina and V. V. Shmatova UDC 628.16
Under the conditions of acceleration in the social-economic development of the country and transition of economics into an intense path of development, questions about the rational use of natural waters and protection of aqueous objects from contamination are becoming particularly pressing. Radical changes are required in the field of water consumption, primarily in industry, since this branch of the national economy affects the quality state of water reservoirs to the greatest extent. More than i00 km ~ of fresh water is taken up in industrial manufacturing, which is 38% of the total consumption [i].
Man-made fibre manufacture is water-intensive. The annual demand for watet by plants of this branch exceeds 450 million m 3. And, although during the last ten years the specific water demand has been reduced by 10-15%, the total amount of water needed has remained high, in connection with the considerable rise is man-made fibre production. Further assurance of water for the man-made fibre industry is impossible without introduction of new approaches in the field of technology, planning, and improving the water-consumption system and the normative base into the practiee of water consumption.
Analysis of the system of planned and report figures in plants of the sub-branch indi- cates a lack of economic controls and stimuli for rational use of water, reduction in the amount of contaminants discharged in wastewater, and of an increase in the quality of clean- up before wastewater is discharged intowatar reservoirs. Progress in the field of protect- ing and improving the use of aqueous resources has been largely determined by the system for planning measures on protecting nature and their final results, which are caused principally by the branch approach to planning of water-protective and resource-conserving measures. Effecting water-protectiv e measures, as a rule, increases the cost of product, and their beneficial national-economic and ecologieal effect has not found adequate reflection in the results of the economic activity of plants.
Under conditions of an expansion in plant regulations, a real threat of a weakening in attention to water-protective activity may arise. However, the ecological situation of such cities as Cherkassy, Mogilev, Krasnoyarsk, Kalinin, and Ryazan' requires adoption of very prompt and active measures to ensure a reduction in water demand and an improvement in the quality of treated wastewater. Technical decisions for each plant should be chosen with a view toward water-assurance for the region. A noneconomic relation to water consumption is creating a shortage of water and will retard further development in manufacturing. At pres- ent, cost accounting in watet consumption has not received development, even to a small degree.
In plants of the branch, it has become the custom to take account of water resources, normalize water use, and introduce charges for water. The question of introducing payments for above-normal contamination or other forms of damage to nature based on the economic harm caused to the national economy thereby has been decided by agencies of supervision. An estimate of the harm from destruction of the environment should be one of the figures used in the environmental protective activity of plants. Thereupon the magnitude of the harm introduced by the plant is defined as proportional to the amount of contaminants going from it into watet reservoirs . The basic principle for evaluating the effectiveness of water- protective measures should be a national-economic approach at all levels -- from the plants to the State Planning Committee of the USSR.
The economics of operating water consumption has been made up outside of economic cal- culations. Components of the economic effect associated with protecting water reservoirs, but which has not been taken into account, since it falls outside the framework of manufac- turing, have been isolated.
Translated from Khimicheskie Volokna, No. 6, pp. 5-6, November-December, 1988. Original article submitted July 29, 1988.
363 0015-0541/88/2006-0363512.50 1989 Plenum Publishing Corporation
TABLE i. Current and Prospective (1991) Water Use
Norms Use Norms
Viscose fibre Viscose textile yarn
From centrifugal method of manu- facture
From bobbin method of preparation From continuous preparation method
Cellulose film Viscose technical yarn
S pecific wamr-comump- non norms
485 405 518 400 553 500 247 188 297 260
Questions of methodology in control of water consumption in plants of the sub-branch, in planning, and in accounting in the sphere of rational use of natural resources require improvement. A scientifically soundly based norma!ization at all planning levels should be made the basis for improving water consumption. Norms and normative figures for the first level of progress (the current ones) developed according to method documents promulgated by the State Planning Committee of the USSR, and also according to procedures and branch instruc- tions, regulate the consumption of water resources under specific conditions, allowing for fulfillment or organizational and technical measures. Promising norms for water use and water withdrawal for plants have been developed by correcting these norms with allowance for established nomenclature and volumes of product, and measures on reducing norms for water use . Norms and normative figures of the second level of progressiveness (provisional ones) for the use of water resources have been calculated with allowance for realization of the best attainments of domestic and foreign plants in the manufacture of this product. To set up well founded norms in the manufacture of man-made fibres, an analysis has been made of balances in waste use and water draw-off, water intensive technological operations which exert a decisive effect on the overall volume of water use and wastewater discharge have been identified, and environmental-protective measures have been developed which are aimed at preventing~irreDarable harm to the environment. In a composite table we compare the current balance norms for water use and the projected ones by forms of production.
There are reserves for cutting down on water use in all plants. These can be uncovered in a strict accounting and control on water use by plants, analysis of water use, and analy- sis of losses in the technological process.
A transiti0n ~o intensive economic methods can be effected as a result of measures aimed at an all-directional economy, rational use, and protection of water resources from exh~ns- tion and contamination; introduction of low-waste and waste-free manufacturing operations; circulated and repeated use of water; replacement of systems for water-cooling of equipment with air cooling; technica! re-outfitting and reconstruction of manufacturing operations; combatting losses (in industry, leaks alone exceed 25% ).
There is experience in using cleaned-up household wastewater to make up circulation systems in industrial plants in Moscow and Chelyabinsk, and experience in utilizing dis- charged hot water from heat and power plants, which gives a large economy , and in tran- sition from cooling towers, which have an elevated drop entrainment, to systems for heat accumulation. The development of fundamentally new technological processes, fuller use of water, material, and energy resources, and development of waste-free manufacturing schemes will make it possible to improve the state of the environment and, in view of the output of additional product obtained as a result of utilizing wastes, will make it possible to attain a significant national-economic benefit.
I. M. Lemeshev, Kommunist, No. 17, 67 (1987). 2. I. I. Andreeva, Economi Principles in Determining the Efficiency of Water-protective
Measures [in Russian], Ekonomich, In-t., Saratov (1985). 3. I. D. Rodziller et al., Vodosnabzh. Sanit. Tekh., No. 4, 2-4 (1987). 4. S. V. Yakovlev et al., Vodosnabzh. Sanit. Tekh., No. i, 2-4 (1987).