Independence For Latin America 1. Revolutions in America  Plantation  Creoles  Mestizos  Joseph Bonaparte  Cabildos 2

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Text of Independence For Latin America 1. Revolutions in America  Plantation  Creoles  Mestizos ...

  • Independence For Latin America*

  • Revolutions in AmericaPlantationCreolesMestizosJoseph BonaparteCabildos*

  • Revolutions in AmericaThe United States Revolution paved the way for many other revolutionsWhy did the revolutions happen?Life in the 1700sRigid social classesHighest social class born in EuropeEnjoyed social privileges and controlled most of the wealthPlantation ownersPlantation is a large farmCreoles born in the AmericaParents born in SpainRich and well educated, not trustedJealous of the SpaniardsMestizosPart Indian Part Spanish Crafts People and shop ownersFew were rich*

  • The Lower ClassesIndiansMade up the majority of the populationHad little to do with societyPersonal servants and laborersPoor and had few RightsAfricansslavesProperty of their ownersThe three lower classes made up the majority of the people living in Spanish AmericaPoorFew rightsLittle chance at an educationClass systems varied from colony to colony but the general situation was the same.

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    Chart1

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    Class System in Spanish America

    Sheet1

    Class System in Spanish America

    Spaniards2%

    Creoles18%

    Mestizos30%

    Indians45%

    Slaves5%

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • What Events Inspired Spanish America?EnlightenmentLocke and VoltaireAmerican RevolutionColonies winFrench Revolution

    All of these events led the people in Spanish America to demand their own rights*

  • French Help1799 a revolutionary leader came into powerNapoleon Bonaparte1808 Invades SpainJoseph Bonaparte is placed on the throne of SpainThis event allowed the Spanish colonies to declare independence with out being disloyal to the kingRevolutions broke out in 1810 with local governmentsCabildossmall governments or city councilsThe time was right to declare independence from SpainCaracas- VenezuelaBuenos Aires-Capital of La PlataArgentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, ParaguayBogata-New GrenadaQuito-EcuadorSantiago-ChileAll of these revolutions began with CabildosMexico is the only exception Started by a Creole Priest*

  • Quiz 1If your parents were born in Spain and you were born in Latin America what are you?

    Indian + Spaniard =

    City council in Latin America

    Large farm

    The brother of Napoleon

    Creole

    Mestizo

    Cabildos

    Plantation

    Joseph Bonaparte*

  • Baukman and HaitiHispaniolaMulattosVoodooMaroonsBaukmanMachetesNight of Fire*

  • Haiti Prior to 1791French Colony called St. DomingueWestern third of HispaniolaRichest colony in the CaribbeanTaken over in the late 1600s by the French18th Century African Slaves were brought to the coloniesSugar, coffee, cotton and indigo.Indigo is a deep blue dye used in cottonThe French landowners became very wealthyNeed for more land and slaves700,000 slaves35,000 French40,000 mulattosFrench fathers, slave mothers

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  • Hispaniola*

  • The beginning of RevolutionFrench to Slave Ratio20-1Why didnt the slaves rebel?The French controlled all the gunsThe slaves didnt stand a chanceAugust 1791Maroons were hiding in the mountains practicing VoodooMaroons-escaped slavesDrums beating celebrating a voodoo riteA revolution was being plannedA priest named Boukman led the ceremonyLeaders of the slaves from across Plain du Nord*

  • BaukmanA foreman who ran field crews, worked his way up to a coachmanBoukman was a huge man that commanded respectHe inspired his followers by telling them that if they die during the rebellion they would wake up in AfricaOne week laterAugust 2250,000 Slaves rose up armed with scythes and machetesMachetes-a large heavy knife used to cut sugarcane and brushKilled and tortured plantation owners and their familiesSet fires to everythingThe night became as bright as dayAll plantations in Plain du Nord were destroyedCalled the Night of Fire*

  • The Struggle ContinuesBoukmans uprising surprised the FrenchThe French soldiers fought back even harderThousands of slaves were killedThe rest were chased into hidingSt Domingue is divided into two partsMountains-slavesCoastal towns- French soldiers and planters and officialsThe uprising spread to the western part of the island and was largely controlledBoukman was killed in battle (beheaded)Head publicly displayedBoukman was replaced by Biassou and Jean Francois*

  • Quiz 2Who was the leader of the rebellion in HispaniolaWhat is an escaped slave calledFrench father + slave mother=The night where all of the plantations in Plain du Nord were burned A deadly weapon in the hands of a slaveBoukman

    Maroon

    Mulatto

    Night of Fire

    Machete

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  • Toussaint LOuverture in HaitiToussaint LOuvertureGuerilla ArmyNapoleon BonaparteGeneral LeclercDessalinesYellow Fever*

  • Toussaint louvertureFrancois Dominique ToussaintAdded lOuverture to the end of his last nameBorn 1743 on a plantation in Northern St. DomingueHis father was an African chief capturedLegendTaught him that knowledge is powerStep-Father taught him how to get powerTaught him how to read and write in French and LatinHow to use herbs and plants for healingDid not participate in the Night of FireWhen the rebellion reached his plantationFamily firstFamily of the plantation managerJoined the revolution

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  • Early in the revolutionToussaint was a doctorThen began giving military advise and medical careToussaint urged leaders to teach the troops disciplineStop destroying everythingUse the things to help themselvesToussaint is made a commanderTaught the soldiers disciplineTrained them like professional soldiers*

  • Toussaint Leads the revolutionBiassou and Jean Francois were poor leadersThey were disloyal to the cause of freedom1791 French looked to be putting down the revoltBiassou and Jean Franis agreed to turn over the former slaves in exchange for their own freedomToussaint organized the slaves into a guerilla armyGuerilla army- a group of soldiers that are not well trainedThey attacked the French when they least expected itAttack- and retreat into the mountainsVery fast and in unexpected directionsThe French could never relax*

  • Toussaint Memorable figure as he rodeRode without a saddleDressed in a French uniformHandkerchief on his headOdd shape under his coatHunchback*

  • Victories (triumphs)Won several victories over the FrenchPromised the townspeople that he would treat them well if they surrenderedThe French refused to free the slavesSpain and Great Britain were at war with the FrenchToussaint joined the Spanish forces in Santo DomingoNamed a general an won battles for the SpanishStill felt some loyalty to France1794 France passed a law freeing all slavesToussaint joined the French and drove the Spanish from the island1795 most important man in St. Domingue*

  • The most important manConcerned about the economy of the islandMost of the plantations were destroyedAsked the former slaves to come back to work and share in the profitsToussaint began to create a separate governmentConstitution was writtenDeclared slavery ended foreverNegotiated treaties with Great Britain and the United StatesTraded sugar for arms1801 Ruler of Hispaniola*

  • NapoleonNapoleon needed the wealth of St. Domingue to fund his warsEconomy could only be brought back through slaveryThe invasion of St. DomingueLed by his brother-in-law General Victor Leclerc43000 soldierslargest invasion force in France historySpies reported Napoleons plans to ToussaintI have known they would come and that the reason behind it would be that one and only goal: reinstatement of slavery. However, we will never again submit to that.Preparations for warImported weapons from the US, reinforced fortsDug pits and trenches in the forestDrafted all men over 12*

  • The invasion of St. DomingueThe people are besides themselves with fury. They never withdraw or give up. They sing as they are facing death and they still encourage each other while they are dying. They seem to not know painsend reinforcementsLeclerc knew that he didnt stand a chanceMeeting with one of his officersToussaint and his family are captured and sent back to FranceIn overthrowing me you have cut down in St. Domingue only the trunk of the tree liberty. It will spring up again from the roots, for they are many and they are deep.Toussaint and his family are separatedSent to Switzerland

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  • France Loses St. DomingueThe French were having a new problemThe guerilla war continuedThousands of black people were killedThe more that were killed the greater the resistanceJacques DessalinesNo loyalty to FranceWanted to end slaveryMake St. Domingue independentBurning of plantations continuedFrench had superior weaponsOnly a matter of time*

  • Yellow FeverDeadly disease spread by mosquitoesThousands of French Soldiers diedUnable to conquer the epidemic8000 soldiers lived to sail back homeWhy didnt the Slaves get Yellow fever?January 1, 1804 St. Domingue declared independentNew name HaitiIndian name before Europeans settled there.Haiti is RebuiltDessalines becomes dictatorOctober 1806 he is murderedHaiti has been ruled by dictators since and is now one of the poorest countries of the world*

  • Quiz 3What disease ended the revolution on HispaniolaWho was the leader that had no loyalty to FranceWho is Napoleons brother in lawWho was a doctor at the beginning of the RevolutionWhat is an army that fights and retreats and hides in the trees or mountains

    Yellow Fever

    Dessalines

    General LeClerc

    Toussaint L Ouverture

    Guerilla Army

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  • Mexicos Fight for independenceHaciendaPadre Miguel Hidalgo y CastillaGrito De DoloresJose Maria MorelosAgustin de