India's Struggle for Independence - Timeline

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Revolt of 1857Viceroy Lord Aukland Lord Hardinge/ Lord Dalhousie Lord Dalhousie Lord Dalhousie Lord Canning Date / Place 1838-42 1845-49 Event First Afghan War Punjab Wars Points to Remember British Suffered Losses British Suffered Losses

1854-1856 1855-57 1857

Crimean Wars Santhal Rebellion Revolt of 1857

British Suffered Losses British Suffered Losses Economic Peasants heavy taxation/money lender high rates Artisans loss of patronage/ Indian handicraft discouraged vs British goods /no development of modern industries Zamindars quo warranto/ loss of land/ cant beg, work Political EIC greedy policy of self aggrandizement & broken oaths Policies of Effective Control, Subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse Mughal Prince Faqiruddinsuccesor had to renounce title post his death in 1856 Socio Religious Racial overtones/ Superiority Complex Christian missionaries proselytisation Social reforms Religious Disability Act 1876, Tax mosque and temple lands Discontent among Sepoys Restrictions on wearing caste and religious symbols General Service Enlistment Act 1856 Bengal Army recruits to serve anywhere undertaking Emoluments discrimination No foreign service allowance when serving in Singh & Punjab Annexation of Awadh Rumor of bones in atta and cartridge of new Enfield Rifles (Greece containing

cow and pig fat) Feb, 1857 / Berhampur March 1857 / Barrackpore May 1857 / Awadh April 24, 1857 / Meerut 19th Native Infantry broke into Mutiny 34th Native Infantry Mangal Pandey shot at a Sergeant Major 7th Awadh Regiment defied its officers 3rd Native Cavalry 9 men refused to accept greased cartridge 3rd Native Cavalry 3rd Native Cavalry Local Infantry killed own European Officers Disbanded in March 1857 April 6 Mangal Pandey executed May Regisment disbanded May - Disbanded

May 9, 1857 / Meerut May 10, 1857/ Meerut May Delhi


June 27, 1857 / Kanpur

Nana Saheb Expelled the English from Kanpur and declared himself Peshwa

June 4, 1857 / Lucknow

Begam Hazrat Mahal took reigns

85 dismissed and sentenced to 10 years rigorous imprisonment Sepoys released comrades/killed officers/unfurled revolt banner Simon Faser Killed Lt. Willoughby put some resistance but was overcome Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed Emperor of India General Bakth Khan led the revolt of the soldiers in Bareilley He ran the court with 10 members 6 from army and 4 from civilian in the name of the emperor Delhi captured in Sep 20, 1857 John Nicholson, leader of siege, wonded and dead Lt. Landon Butchered princes on spot at point blank Emperor exiled to Rangoon in 1862 By 1859 Bakth Khan dead Nana Saheb, adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II was refused official titles Sir Hugh Wheeler surrendered Sir Colin Campbell occupied Kanpur in Dec 6, 1857 Nana Saheb escaped to Nepal Tantia escaped into jungles. Captured and killed in April 1858 By 1859 Rao Sahib (bro of Nana) dead Son Birjis Qadir declared Nawab Sir Henry Lawrence and some europeans lake shelter in the residency. Sir Henry killed

Lord Canning announced Queens Proclamation


Khan Bahadur

Bihar Faizabad

Kunwar Singh Maulvi Ahmadullah


Rani Laxmi Bai

Banaras Lord Canning Nov 1, 1858

Brigadier Inglish held on against heavy odds Attempts by Sir Henry Havelock & Sir james Outram has no success Sir Colin Campbell evacuated the Europeans with Gorkha Regiment March 1858, Lucknow recovered Begam forced to hide in Nepal He was a descendent of a former ruler of Rohilakhand Not enthusiastic about the pension By 1859 Khan Bahadur dead Zamindar of Jagdishpur Britishers had taken his land Native of Madras Had moved to Faizabad By 1859 Maulvi dead Lord Dalhousi had refused to allow her adopted son to ascend to the throne after the death of Raja Gangadhar Rao She was assisted by Tantia Tope an associate of Nana Saheb after the loss of Kanpur Marched towards Gwalior Gwalior captured in June 1858 Jhanshi captured by Sir Hugh Rose Colonel Neill put to death all suspected rebels and disorderly sepoys Great Britain took over Government of India from East India Company

1858-1905Skipped: Revolutionary Terrorism (92) Political Associations before INC 1836/Bengal 1840s/Bengal


Bangabhasa Prakasika Sabha The Zamindari Association or Landholders Society The British Bengal India Society

Founded by raja Ram Mohan Roy in Bengal Founded to safeguard the rights of the landholders

Collection and dissemination of information to people of british india

Employ lawful and peaceful means to secure rights British India Association formed after merger Sent recommendation for Charter of Company separate legislature of popular character/reduction in salaries/abolition of salt duty, abkari & stamp duty 6 additional members included in governor generals council Dadabhai Naroji to discuss Indian Question with influential public in London to promote Indias welfare Mahadeo Govind Ranade Serving bridge between government and people Sisir Kumar Ghosh Simulate sense of nationalism and political education Superseded Indian League Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Ghosh Discontented by pro landlord and conservative policies of British India Association Create public opinion on political questions/unify Indian people on political programme M Viragaraghavchari, B Subramaniya Aiyar, P Anandacharalu Badruddin Tyabji, PherozshahMehta,K T Telang Understanding of contradictions in Indian and colonial interests economic exploitation Political, administrative and economic unification Western thoughts and education Role of press and literature in 1887 there were 169 vernacular newspapers Rediscovery of Indias past Progressive character of socio religious reform movements Growth of middle class intelligentsia


Zamindari Association & British Bengal India Society merged

1853 1866/London

Charter Act East India Association Poona Sarvajanik Sabha Indian League Indian Association of Calcutta


1875/Bengal 1876/Bengal

Madras Mahajan Sabha 1885/Bombay Bombay Presidency Association Factors in growth of Modern Nationalism


Lytton (7680) 1876 Reduction of Maximum age limit from 21 to 19 Grand Delhi durbar when country was severe grip of famine Vernacular Press Act Arms Act Ilbert bill controversy

Impact of contemporary movements world wide Reactionary policies and racial arrogance


1878 1878 1883

Ripon (8084)


Dufferin(84- Dec 1885/ 88) Bombay

Conferences of Indian National Conference Indian national Congress

Ripon had sought to abolish judicial disqualification based on race allowing Indian judges to try British offenders Ripon had to modify the bill and it was enacted in a severe compromised state in 1884 Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Ghosh architects of Indian national Conference A O Hume mobilized intellectuals and conducted the first session of the Indian national Congress. Safety Valve theory platform for intellectuals to release discontent. Hume convinced Dufferin. First session attended by 72 delegates Presided by Womesh Chandra Bonnerjea Hereafter congress met in December every year Aims of Congress: Found democratic, national movement Politicize/ politically educate Establish a headquarters for the movement Promote friendliness amongst nationalists Develop anti-colonial nationalist ideology Formulate and present popular demand to the government

1887 Fallout with British India Government 1890 Kadambini Ganguly first woman to graduate from Calcutta College Session of INC in London

Develop and nurture feeling of nationalhood and unity Congress increasingly critical of colonial Rule Dufferin stick to social questions Sedatious Bramhins , Duffer factory of sedition Addressed INC par


To be held in 1892 Postponed due to british elections in 1891 Plan of setting up a British Committee of INC in London in 1899 Dadabhai Naroji was the anchor

Contribution of Moderates Economic Critique 1892 Constitutional Reform


Self Government like Canada and Australia

Drain Theory Dadabhai Naroji, R C Dutt,Dinshaw Wacha Indian Councils Act of 1861 toothless - disguise official measures as being passed by a representative body/wealthy loyalists selected (exceptions Syed Ahmad Khan, Kristodas Pal, V N mandalik, K L Nulkar, Rashbheri Ghosh) 1885-92 demands expansion of council/ more powers to council (control on finance) power to veto or amend budget Indian Councils Act 1892 Imperial legislative council of governor general to have 10-16 (instead of 610) members / Officials retained majority Some members to be indirectly elected (element of election) / Reformed council met 13 days/ year, unofficial team present 5/25 average Budget could be discussed / Could not be vetoed or amended Questions could be asked / Supplimentaries not allowed Naroji/Gokhle/Tilak

Administrative Reforms

Defence of Civil Rights

Indianisation of services Separate judicial and executive Critique Tyrannical Bureaucracy & time consuming judiciary Critique aggressive foreign policy Afghan wars/ Burma wars Increase in expenditure on welfare Better treatment of labor abroad Speech , thought, association, free press

1905-1918Skipped: New forces, revolutionary forces Why Militant Nationalism Grew Recognition of true nature of British Rule Growth of Self Confidence Tilak, Bipin, Aurobindo appealed to national character Growth of education International influence Progress of Japan post 1868, Italy defeated by Ethopia (1896), Boer War (1899-1902) where british fac