Information Science Introduction to Library & Information Studies LIS-505 February 22, 2010

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


  • Information ScienceIntroduction to Library & Information StudiesLIS-505February 22, 2010

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *ObjectivesTo define information science

    To explore the relationship between information science and librarianship

    To review the arguments for and against information science as a discipline or profession

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science: Problems in DefinitionA matter of meaning What is information?An ambiguous term

    Buckland (1991):information as process - act of informing; communication of somethinginformation as knowledge - the something which has been communicatedinformation as thing - object such as data or documents

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Buckland (1991): Information-as-Thing Representation Information systems (e.g. IR and expert) can only deal with information directly as information-as-thing (i.e. physical representations of knowledge)

    Representations of knowledge and of events are information-as-thing

    Concept of evidence passive humans do things with it or to it (e.g. interpret it, describe it, etc.)

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Representations: Buckland (1991)If an object is not representative of something, then it is not clear how far it can signify anything, i.e., be informative (p.355).

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *I.S. Representations: Characteristics(Buckland, 1991)Somewhat incompletesomething of original is lost.Made for convenience (e.g. easier to store, search, understand)Shift from event or object to text; text to text; object and texts to dataAdditional details may be added to the representation to inform or misinformProcess of representation can continue indefinitelyUsually briefer or smaller than whatever is being represented.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *And what do we mean by science?At pure science level purpose is to find out truth(s) of the matter studied.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science: Bates (1999)Information science studies the world of recorded information produced by human agency (fourth universe).

    How humans produce, seek, retrieve and use this universe = intellectual domain of information science.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *The Content of Form: Bates (1999) Applied IS focuses on form, organization and structure of information not with content.

    IS is a meta-discipline; Information is the red thread that runs through it.

    The average person, whether Ph.D. scholar or high school graduate, never notices the structure that organizes their information, because they are so caught up in absorbing and relating to the content (p. 1045).

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *The Content of Form: Bates (1999) at first it feels alien to think about a resource in terms of the features that matter to the organization and retrieval of it, rather than in terms of mastering its content (p. 1046).

    Underlines need for information expertise not subject expertise.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Characteristics of Information Science: Bates (1999)Interdisciplinary.

    Closely linked to IT.

    Possessing a social and human dimension.

    Service and empowerment-oriented value system.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science: Griffiths (2000)Information science focuses on the relationship between people and recorded knowledge and uses a variety of tools to help understand and improve the relationship. (p. 25)

    People. By developing deeper understandings of peoples preferences and practices, helps in the design and delivery of improved processes and services for production, dissemination, receipt and use of recorded information.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science: Griffiths (2000)Recorded Knowledge. Better understanding of the structure of knowledge, format and medium used to communicate information content helps in the process of organization, dissemination and communication.

    Tools. Research into tools design, development and evaluation can improve relationship between people and recorded knowledge in its creation, capture, storage, preservation, identification, dissemination and use.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *IS: Field of practice and scientific inquiryStudy of information to generate theoretical models (More on this next week!)

    Development and implementation of models to enable the design of better information systems

    Profession of providing an information service(Saracevic)

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Do definitions matter?Debates over the proper definitions of information science, as of any field, are fruitless, and in expectations nave. Information Science, as a science and as a profession, is defined by the problems it has addressed and the methods it has used for their solutions over time(Saracevic, 1999 p. 1051).

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science : A More Recent DefinitionThe systematic study and analysis of the sources, development, collections, organization, dissemination, evaluation, use, and management of information in all its forms, including the channels (formal and informal) and technology used in its communication.

    Reitz, Joan. (2004). Dictionary for Library and Information Science. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. p. 358.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *The 3 Big IS QuestionsWhat are the features and laws of the recorded information universe?

    How do people seek and use information?

    How can access to recorded information be made most rapid and effective?(Bates)

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science: ContentInformation use and usersInformation organizationInformation systems

    Human-computer interaction (HCI)Information retrieval (IR)Evaluation

    Information servicesInformation disseminationBibliometrics

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science: ContentSaracevic: Two clusters of study in Information Science (as shown by a bibliometric analysis, 1998)

    One cluster: Information analysisThis includes: Content analysis of texts, communication, information uses, information behavior

    Second cluster: RetrievalThis includes: User studies of IT, library systems, OPACS, IR theory, retrieval algorithms, HCI

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Information Science: Supporters of I.S. distinct from Library ScienceIS cannot be equated with documentation, information retrieval, librarianship or with anything else. Information science is not souped up IR or librarianship any more than physics is supercharged engineering. (Rees & Saracevic)Librarianship and documentation are applied aspects of information science; techniques and procedures used by librarians and documentalists are, or should be, based upon the theoretical findings of information science. (Borko).

  • *Information Science: OpponentsIt is quite evident that information science is rooted in attempts to extend the boundaries of library technology and give it revived respectability by endowing it with a unique name (Shera).

    Efforts to tease apart the disciplinary domains of library science and information science have been unsuccessful; they have arisen more from discontent with the status quo than from adequate cognitive claims, usually by non-librarians discontented with librarianship (Schrader).

  • *Information Science: CompromisersLibrary and information science represent a disciplinary continuumwith no easily identifiable boundary separating them, though the difference between the extreme ends of the continuum are clear and even dramatic (Rayward)Librarianship and practical information science both have in common an information perspective, even though they have very different histories(Bates)

  • *Whats in a Name?Names of ProgramsNames of DepartmentsNames of JournalsNames of Associations

    Convergence or Divergence?

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *New names for old ideas?Information studiesInformation systemsInformation managementKnowledge management

    The debate continues.

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *15 MINUTES

  • Knowledge ManagementIntroduction to Library & Information StudiesLIS-505

    Adapted from a presentation by Dr. K. Dalkir, School of Information StudiesMcGill University, Montreal, Quebec

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *General Introduction to KMKM is a relatively new discipline that has emerged from business practitioners to form a new discipline of study

    KM is extremely multidisciplinary in nature

    KM is full of people from highly diverse backgrounds

    KM is a work in progress it has not yet matured into a well defined profession such as engineering, medicine and law

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *A brief history of KM

    YEARENTITYEVENT1986Dr. K WiigCoined KM concept at UN1989Consulting FirmsStart internal KM projects1991HBR articleNonaka & Takeuchi1993Dr. K WiigFirst KM book published1994KM NetworkFirst KM Conference1997Consulting FirmsFirst KM services for clients

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Why do we need KM?It was easy to do in the past - - coffee cliques, smokers gathering, water coolers.

    Traditionally, we have shared knowledge through word of mouth (e.g. master to apprentice)

    socializing comes naturally to us, there are fewer opportunities in todays much larger, much more global companies

  • *KMTodays Working EnvironmentMore &FasterMore ConnectedMore GlobalMoreMobile

  • *Increasing ComplexityTodays work environment is more complex due to an increase in the number of subjective knowledge items we need to attend to everyday

    Filtering over 200 emails, faxes, voicemail messages on a daily basis how to prioritize?

    Having to think on our feet as expected response time has greatly decreased as well

    KM is a response to the challenge of trying to manage this complexity amidst information overloadA science of complexity

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • Thanks to Felicity Tayler for the figure

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *What is KM? A definition:Knowledge management (KM):The systematic capture, organization, leveraging and dissemination of an organizations knowledge (tacit and explicit) to improve the efficiency and adaptivity of teams and to promote innovation

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *More definitionsKM is the systematic, explicit and deliberate building, renewal and application of knowledge to maximize an enterprises knowledge-related effectiveness and returns from knowledge assets (K. Wiig)KM is the process of capturing a companys collective expertise wherever it resides: in databases, on paper, in peoples heads and distributing it to wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff. (Hibbard)KM is getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time so they can make the best decision (Petrash)

  • *Even more KM DefinitionsIt is the attempt to recognize what is essentially a human asset buried in the minds of individuals, and leverage it into an organizational asset that can be accessed and used by a broader set of individuals on whose decisions the firm depends (Prusak)

    KM applies systematic approaches to find, understand and use knowledge to create value (ODell)

    KM is the explicit control and management of knowledge within an organization aimed at achieving the companys objectives (van der Spek)

    KM is the formalization of and access to experience, knowledge, and expertise that create new capabilities, enable superior performance, encourage innovation and enhance customer value (Beckman)

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *KM addresses two different forms of knowledge:Tacit KnowledgeExplicit Knowledge80-85%15-20%active

  • *

  • *Tacit KnowledgeDifficult to articulate to put into words, text, drawings

    We have a habit of writing articles published in scientific journals to make the work as finished as possible, to cover up all the tracks, to not worry about the blind alleys or how you had the wrong idea at first, and so on. So there isnt any place to publish, in a dignified manner, what you actually did in order to do the work. (Richard Feynman)We know more than we can tell (Michael Polanyi)

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *The Nonaka-Takeuchi Model of Knowledge Management In an economy where the only certainty is uncertainty, the one sure source of lasting competitive advantage is knowledge. I. Nonaka

    The authors studied successful Japanese companies to understand how they achieved creativity and innovationMetaphors, slogans, symbols and serendipity

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *KM occurs at 3 levels:IndividualGroup/team community of practiceOrganization

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • LIS-505February 21, 2009*Four Knowledge TransformationsTacitExplicitTacitExplicit

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Knowledge sharingTacitExplicitTacitExplicitSocialisationBrainstormingTeam workMentorshipCombination:OrganisationClassificationExternalisationCaptureMake tangibleInternalisation:ComprehensionLearning

  • * The KM Cycle

  • *KM has already gone through 3 generations:1st Generation:if we only knew what we know IT

    2nd Generation:if we only knew who knows about. PEOPLE

    3rd Generation:if we could only organize our knowledge. CONTENT

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

  • *Knowledge Management

    Lots of content archivingDocuments - warehousingSearch engines needed$$$ neededFrustrating to find anythingIntellectual Capital Management

    Minimum content only that of valuePeoples real thinking - storiesSharing and reuse of best practicesActionable knowledge & know-howLess $$$ needed

    ICM vs Knowledge Management**1st and 2nd generation KM

  • *Intellectual Capital ManagementMANAGE CONTENT

  • *KM Link to Information ProfessionalsKnowledge OrganizationTraditionally, Library and Information Science has focused on the organization of explicit knowledgeBooks, documents

    This scope needs to be enlarged to include tacit knowledge all intellectual assets at 3 levels:IndividualGroup (community of practice)Organization (corporate/organizational memory)

    Analogy: statisticians and data mining librarians and knowledge management

    LIS-505October 12, 2009

    ********************Boisot Chp 1

    Peter Drucker coined the term knowledge worker in 1959*Companies have grown too large although this is a natural form of communicating for humans, it can nolonger be very effective*What makes KM so critical today is that these 4 keybusiness drivers are converging making the sharingof critical knowledge that much harder

    knowledge is an intellectual asset yet only 10 -15% is actually written down

    Impossible to document all knowledge - worse yet, this knowledge is lost once employee leaves


    Leibowitz Chp. 2*T - T Individual to individual(s) Apprenticeship, Imitation, Practice, Brainstorming, Coaching, MentoringObservation, Shadowing - - not generalized T E Able to articulate the knowledge, know-how Can be written, videotape, audiotape format - exists in a tangible form Often need intermediary to capture this knowledge journalist, workshop Now be more easily shared with others, leveraged throughout the orgE E Can combine discrete pieces of tangible knowledge into a new formE.g. a synthesis in the form of a report, a comparative evaluation, a new databaseSimply a new combination of existing knowledge no new knowledge is createdE T As new k...