Integration and fragmentation of post compulsory teacher education

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Ams/Girona*barri Lib]On: 27 October 2014, At: 04:41Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Journal of Vocational Education &amp;TrainingPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:</p><p>Integration and fragmentation of postcompulsory teacher educationGavin Moodie a &amp; Leesa Wheelahan ba RMIT , Melbourne , Australiab LH Martin Institute for Higher Education Leadership andManagement , University of Melbourne , Melbourne , AustraliaPublished online: 04 Jul 2012.</p><p>To cite this article: Gavin Moodie &amp; Leesa Wheelahan (2012) Integration and fragmentation of postcompulsory teacher education, Journal of Vocational Education &amp; Training, 64:3, 317-331, DOI:10.1080/13636820.2012.691535</p><p>To link to this article:</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arisingout of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp;Conditions of access and use can be found at</p><p></p></li><li><p>Integration and fragmentation of post compulsory teachereducation</p><p>Gavin Moodiea* and Leesa Wheelahanb</p><p>aRMIT, Melbourne, Australia; bLH Martin Institute for Higher Education Leadership andManagement, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia</p><p>(Received 14 September 2011; final version received 20 February 2012)</p><p>The boundaries between vocational and academic post compulsory educationhave been blurred by students combining vocational and academic studies andby students transferring increasingly between the two types of education. Institu-tions are also blurring the boundaries between the sectors by increasingly offer-ing programs from two and sometimes three sectors. In contrast, teachers seemmore entrenched than ever in their own sector. This article reports a project onthe preparation of Australian teachers of vocational education. It examines theprospect of integrating the preparation of teachers in post compulsory educationto teach in schools, vocational education institutions and higher education insti-tutions. It argues that greater differentiation between different types of voca-tional teachers and vocational teacher preparation can support the developmentof a continuum along which it would be possible to establish points of common-ality with the preparation of school and higher education teachers.</p><p>Keywords: teacher training; teacher development; policy issues; vocational edu-cation and training; further education; community colleges</p><p>Introduction</p><p>The tension between integrating and separating forms and processes of post com-pulsory education arises in interesting ways in teacher education. The differences inthe students and purposes served by education after the compulsory years requiresome differences in the way this education is conducted, but to what extent shouldthese differences be institutionalised and to what extent should students and teach-ers be left to construct for themselves their learning and teaching to serve their dis-tinctive purposes? Even granted a certain segmentation of curriculum, pedagogyand institutions of post compulsory education, should teachers be confined to orstraddle those segments? Different countries answer these questions in differentways and each countrys answers change over time.</p><p>This article starts by identifying two issues that arose from the authors recentproject on the quality of teaching in Australian vocational education and training.The first issue is whether the education of tertiary education teachers might reflector even lead the blurring of the sectoral boundaries in tertiary education. This blur-ring of the sectoral boundaries is being observed in Australian federal and Stategovernments policies on tertiary education, increased student transfer between the</p><p>*Corresponding author. Email:</p><p>Journal of Vocational Education and TrainingVol. 64, No. 3, September 2012, 317331</p><p>ISSN 1363-6820 print/ISSN 1747-5090 online 2012 The Vocational Aspect of Education Ltd</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Am</p><p>s/G</p><p>iron</p><p>a*ba</p><p>rri L</p><p>ib] </p><p>at 0</p><p>4:41</p><p> 27 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>sectors and institutions becoming more vertically integrated in offering both voca-tional and higher education. However, it has so far not led to an integration or evenconvergence of the preparation of teachers for each sector. The second issue iswhether all vocational teachers should have the same preparation or whether thereshould be different teacher education for different types or forms of vocationaleducation.</p><p>The article then reviews other recent studies of the preparation of vocationalteachers in Australia. It discusses what turned out to be the most controversial partof the project: whether it is still appropriate to refer to vocational education teach-ers or whether one should adopt some critics preferred terms trainer, assessoror practitioner. The article argues that while context is important in all education,it is more important in vocational education than in other forms because vocationaleducation is grounded more heavily in its social context, in this case, preparationfor work. This makes vocational teaching particularly complex. The article thenconsiders its main issue: the extent to which vocational teachers and teacher educa-tion should be integrated with other forms of teaching and teacher education, andthe extent to which vocational teacher education should be further differentiated byinstitutionalising different roles and therefore different preparation for differentaspects of vocational education. The article concludes that there are strong pressuresto differentiate vocational teaching and teacher education in Australia. However, byrecognising and formalising different roles and preparation of vocational teachersone may establish a continuum of roles and preparation of vocational teacher/train-ers along which it would be possible to establish points of commonality with thepreparation of school and higher education teachers.</p><p>Issues</p><p>All countries distinguish to varying extents between education that prepares studentsdirectly for work, called vocational education in this article, and education that pre-pares students for further learning or is less closely associated with work, which wecall academic education. Some countries, particularly those in northern continentalEurope, distinguish further between initial vocational education that prepares stu-dents to enter work and continuing vocational education for students already inwork (Misra 2011, 29). This distinction may be reflected in different organisationalarrangements, with initial vocational education based mostly at educational institu-tions and continuing vocational education based mostly at workplaces. This in turnmay generate different roles for those teaching vocational education, with teachersof initial vocational education called teachers and teachers of continuing vocationaleducation called trainers (Misra 2011, 31). Some countries, such as Germany, distin-guish further between the parts of initial vocational education that are practical andthose that are theoretical and general (Misra 2011, 33). South Africa proposes toestablish three categories of teachers of initial vocational education: those who teachgeneral subjects, those who teach vocational disciplines, and those who providepractical instruction in, for example, workshops (Papier 2010, 159).</p><p>Australia has long distinguished vocational and academic post compulsory edu-cation. Until the 1970s that distinction started at school: academic education wasprovided at high schools, and vocational education was provided at trade schoolsand then at technical high schools. As participation in post compulsory secondaryeducation increased, State governments in Australia closed technical high schools</p><p>318 G. Moodie and L. Wheelahan</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Am</p><p>s/G</p><p>iron</p><p>a*ba</p><p>rri L</p><p>ib] </p><p>at 0</p><p>4:41</p><p> 27 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>and made high schools responsible for providing broader senior secondary educa-tion, although in practice they offered academic education to a broader range ofpupils. From the mid-1970s the distinction between vocational and academic institu-tions was moved to tertiary institutions. Vocational education was formally recogni-sed as a distinct sector of tertiary education in 1975 with the redesignation andestablishment of public providers of vocational education as colleges of Technicaland Further Education (TAFE). Over the next 15 years, the education offered byTAFE and other vocational colleges was distinguished increasingly sharply fromacademic education offered by universities and higher education colleges. The dis-tinctions between vocational and academic tertiary education are starting to blur asparticipation in all forms of tertiary education increases as Australia moves frommass to universal higher education (Trow 1974). The Australian Government nowplans an interconnected tertiary education sector (Commonwealth of Australia2009, 8) that distinguishes less sharply between if not integrates vocational and aca-demic education. One issue, then, is whether the education of tertiary educationteachers might reflect or even lead the blurring of the sectoral boundaries in tertiaryeducation.</p><p>A second issue is whether all vocational teachers should have the same prepara-tion or whether there should be different teacher education for different types orforms of vocational education. This is particularly salient for Australia where thevocational education that is subject to public policy is broader than the vocationaleducation overseen by governments in some other countries. Australian govern-ments assume responsibility for vocational education at all stages of a personscareer. The governments of many continental European countries are concernedwith initial vocational education, leaving most continuing vocational education toemployers. There is no such formal distinction between initial and continuing voca-tional education in Australia, as there is not in the United Kingdom or the UnitedStates: Practices differ in each State, but most US States and the federal governmentdo not collect statistics on let alone monitor nor seek to regulate vocational educa-tion that is funded privately. Hence a big but indeterminate amount of US voca-tional education is beyond public policy (Osterman 2011, 136). The position iscomplicated in Australia, but Australian governments collect statistics on all pub-licly funded vocational education and oversee at least broadly vocational educationfunded privately at TAFE institutes. Since TAFE institutes provide most vocationaleducation in Australia, Australian State and federal governments oversee most voca-tional education. They also regulate the vast majority of vocational qualificationsrecognised by students, employers and government authorities. In contrast, manyEnglish vocational qualifications are awarded by one of several private examinationboards such as the not for profit City and Guilds and the for profit Edexcel. Whilecertificates awarded by software vendors Cisco Systems and Microsoft Corporationand by car and aircraft manufacturers have some currency in Australian vocationaleducation, they do not seem as prominent as in many other countries.</p><p>Several factors are increasing attention to vocational teacher education. Manycountries are expecting more of vocational education. Many countries seek toimprove their productivity, to which vocational education is understood to contrib-ute importantly. Some countries look to vocational education as much as other edu-cation sectors to reduce inequality. Australias workforce participation is not highand the country hopes to increase it through vocational education (Skills Australia2011). Australian employers still complain about vocational education being</p><p>Journal of Vocational Education and Training 319</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Am</p><p>s/G</p><p>iron</p><p>a*ba</p><p>rri L</p><p>ib] </p><p>at 0</p><p>4:41</p><p> 27 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>insufficiently practical, irrelevant, of poor quality and inflexible (NCVER 2009, 14),despite being industry led from the 1990s. From 2000 most of Australias voca-tional education has been based on work competences which have been heavilycriticised by educators, while the advocates of competence based training haveargued that the problems are not with this form of training but with its implementa-tion (Guthrie 2009a). Australian governments have steadily cut funding for voca-tional education over the last decade. Over the same period governments have usedcompetitive and often market mechanisms to allocate increasing proportions ofpublic funding for vocational education to private for profit providers as well aspublic institutes (Skills Australia 2011). The cost cutting and marketisation of Aus-tralian vocational education has raised concerns about its quality, which have beenheightened by several prominent failures of standards and quality (Schofield 1999a,1999b, 2000).</p><p>A high proportion of Australian vocational teachers are employed on casual orsessional contracts, although because of the paucity of data on staff in vocationaleducation it is impossible to know how many. However, probably from half to two-thirds of vocational teachers are employed on casual contracts (Guthrie 2010a). Aswith many other OECD countries, it seems that Australian vocational teachers areageing and will probably need to be replaced soon (OECD 2010, 92). All of thesefactors have implications for the preparation of vocat...</p></li></ul>


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