Interactions among organisms 2

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  • 1. Interactions AmongInteractions Among OrganismsOrganisms

2. What is Ecology?What is Ecology? Ecology is the study of organisms and the livingEcology is the study of organisms and the living and non-living parts of their environment.and non-living parts of their environment. There are many levels of organization in ecology.There are many levels of organization in ecology. They are:They are: TheThe BiosphereBiosphere All the area on the surface of earth and in All the area on the surface of earth and in the atmosphere that supports life.the atmosphere that supports life. Ecosystem A group of organisms living together and theEcosystem A group of organisms living together and the environment around them.environment around them. Community All of the interactingCommunity All of the interacting populationspopulations in an areain an area Population All of the organisms of the samePopulation All of the organisms of the same speciesspecies livingliving in an areain an area OrganismOrganism A single living thing A single living thing 3. Abiotic vs. Biotic FactorsAbiotic vs. Biotic Factors AbioticAbiotic Factors areFactors are all of theall of the non-livingnon-living components of thecomponents of the ecosystem.ecosystem. Examples would be:Examples would be: 1.1. WaterWater 2.2. ClimateClimate 3.3. SoilSoil Biotic Factors are allBiotic Factors are all of theof the livingliving components of thecomponents of the ecosystem.ecosystem. Examples would be:Examples would be: 1.1. PlantsPlants 2.2. InsectsInsects 3.3. Larger animalsLarger animals 4. Which level is it?Which level is it? Identify the level ofIdentify the level of ecologicalecological organizationorganization represented by eachrepresented by each picture.picture. A herd of buffalo.A herd of buffalo. 5. Which level is it?Which level is it? All of the living andAll of the living and non-living items in anon-living items in a pondpond 6. Which level is it?Which level is it? All of the animalAll of the animal populations living onpopulations living on the African savannah.the African savannah. 7. HabitatHabitat The habitat is the placeThe habitat is the place where an organism liveswhere an organism lives out its life.out its life. It is where the organismIt is where the organism findsfinds foodfood,, sheltershelter andand mates.mates. Several species can live inSeveral species can live in the samethe same habitathabitat but willbut will use the resources inuse the resources in different ways.different ways. 8. NicheNiche A niche is all strategiesA niche is all strategies andand adaptationsadaptations aa species uses in itsspecies uses in its environment.environment. This is how organismsThis is how organisms obtain food, mates andobtain food, mates and protectionprotection fromfrom predators.predators. No two species can occupyNo two species can occupy the samethe same nicheniche long (onelong (one species will go extinct).species will go extinct). http://www.tycho.dk/ezimagecatalogue/catalogue/variations/1150-250x250.jpg 9. Ecological RelationshipsEcological Relationships Ecological Relationships can beEcological Relationships can be classified as eitherclassified as either symbiosissymbiosis oror predationpredation.. A symbiosis is a close,A symbiosis is a close, permanentpermanent relationship between tworelationship between two differentdifferent types oftypes of organisms.organisms. There are three types of symbiosis:There are three types of symbiosis: 1.1. MutualismMutualism 2.2. CommensalismCommensalism 3.3. ParasitismParasitism 10. MutualismMutualism In mutualism, bothIn mutualism, both organismsorganisms benefitbenefit fromfrom one another.one another. For example: A clownfishFor example: A clownfish and a sea anemone have aand a sea anemone have a mutualisticmutualistic relationship.relationship. The fish is protected by theThe fish is protected by the anemone and the anemoneanemone and the anemone receivesreceives scraps of foodscraps of food from the clownfish.from the clownfish. 11. CommensalismCommensalism In commensalism, one organismIn commensalism, one organism benefitsbenefits from the other. The other organism isfrom the other. The other organism is neitherneither helpedhelped nornor harmedharmed.. This is usually a relationship between aThis is usually a relationship between a small organism and a larger organismsmall organism and a larger organism where the smaller organism benefits.where the smaller organism benefits. The benefit is usuallyThe benefit is usually sheltershelter,, transportationtransportation , defense, or, defense, or foodfood.. 12. CommensalismCommensalism An example is theAn example is the relationship of therelationship of the remora and the shark.remora and the shark. The remora receivesThe remora receives foodfood in the form ofin the form of scraps that comescraps that come from the shark, butfrom the shark, but the shark isthe shark is unaffectedunaffected.. 13. ParasitismParasitism In parasitism, oneIn parasitism, one organism benefits andorganism benefits and the other isthe other is harmedharmed.. The organism thatThe organism that benefitsbenefits is called theis called the parasiteparasite The organism that isThe organism that is harmedharmed is called theis called the hosthost 14. ParasitismParasitism TapewormsTapeworms andand liver flukes areliver flukes are examples of parasitesexamples of parasites that live in the bodiesthat live in the bodies of other organismsof other organisms ((endoparasitesendoparasites).). They feed off the hostThey feed off the host and cause disease.and cause disease. 15. Summary of SymbioticSummary of Symbiotic RelationshipsRelationships RelationshipRelationship Organism 1Organism 1 Organism 2Organism 2 MutualismMutualism CommensalismCommensalism ParasitismParasitism 16. PredationPredation In predation, oneIn predation, one organism, theorganism, the predatorpredator, kills and, kills and eats another, theeats another, the preyprey.. The relationship ofThe relationship of predator and prey ispredator and prey is essential to keepingessential to keeping populations of bothpopulations of both animals at normalanimals at normal levels.levels. 17. Which relationship is it?Which relationship is it? An American RobinAn American Robin builds a nest in a Redbuilds a nest in a Red Maple treeMaple tree 18. Which relationship is it?Which relationship is it? A tick makes its homeA tick makes its home on a White-tailedon a White-tailed DeerDeer 19. Which relationship is it?Which relationship is it? A Nile crocodile willA Nile crocodile will open its mouth andopen its mouth and allow the Egyptianallow the Egyptian plover to feed on anyplover to feed on any leeches that areleeches that are attached to its gumsattached to its gums 20. Which relationship is it?Which relationship is it? A Red Fox hunts andA Red Fox hunts and consumes a Blackconsumes a Black Rat SnakeRat Snake 21. Which relationship is it?Which relationship is it? A certain type ofA certain type of paramecium engulfsparamecium engulfs unicellular green algaeunicellular green algae into vacuoles within itsinto vacuoles within its cell. The algae arecell. The algae are allowed to utilize carbonallowed to utilize carbon dioxide produced by thedioxide produced by the paramecium and theparamecium and the paramecium is able toparamecium is able to utilize food produced byutilize food produced by the algaethe algae

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