Interactions and Interdependence - Hanover Area School ... 3...A. Interactions and Interdependence ... interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment. The

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    Levels Within Levels

    An ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. Within an ecosystem, there are several levels of organization. Your school and its grounds are similar to an ecosystem.

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    Interest Grabber

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    1. What living things are found in and around your school?

    2. What nonliving things are found in your school?

    3. Into what large groups are the students in your school divided?

    4. Into what smaller groups are these large groups divided?

    5. Are these groups ever divided into even smaller groups? If so, what are these groups?

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    Interest Grabber continued

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    31 What Is Ecology? A. Interactions and Interdependence B. Levels of Organization C. Ecological Methods

    1. Observing 2. Experimenting 3. Modeling

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    Section Outline

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    Interactions and Interdependence Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment. The largest environment in which living organisms can be found is called the biosphere. It extends 8 km above Earths surface to about 11 km below the surface of the ocean. Interactions within the biosphere produce a web of interdependence between organisms and the environment in which they live. Earth has an ever-changing, or dynamic, biosphere.

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    Levels of Organization

    To understand relationships within the biosphere, ecologists ask questions about events and organisms that range in complexity from a single individual to the entire biosphere.

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    Figure 3-2 Ecological Levels of Organization

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    Ecological Methods

    Regardless of the tools they use, scientists conduct modern ecological research using three basic approaches: observing, experimenting, and modeling. All of these approaches rely on the application of scientific methods to guide ecological inquiry.

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    Ecological Methods

    Chemical Testing

    Sites

    Computer/ Calculators

    Written Record

    Magnifying Tools

    Measuring Tools

    Observation Experiment Model Building Field site Experimental plots,

    field sites, laboratory Many sites for data collecting

    Tapes, compass, Global Positioning System, thermometer, sensors

    Tapes, compass, Global Positioning System, thermometer, sensors

    Aerial views, Global Positioning System, weather balloons

    Binoculars, microscope, telescope

    Binoculars, microscope, telescope

    Satellite images

    Notes, automated data storage

    Notes, automated data storage

    Automated data storage

    Test kits Test kits Large database, multiple sensors

    Mathematical analysis and graphics, statistics

    Mathematical analysis and graphics, statistics

    Mathematical analysis and graphics, statistics, simulations

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    Compare/Contrast Table

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    Pass It Along

    Energy flows in one direction through an ecosystem, from the sun or inorganic compounds to producers (organisms that can make their own food) through various levels to consumers (organisms that rely on other organisms for food). Your body gets the energy and materials it needs for growth and repair from the foods you eat.

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    Interest Grabber

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    1. Make a list of five foods that you like to eat. Indicate whether the food comes from a plant (producer) or an animal (consumer).

    2. Like many birds, chickens eat grains, which are seeds. Where do seeds come from?

    3. Meat comes from beef cattle. What do cattle eat?

    4. Construct a diagram showing how one of your favorite foods obtains its energy. Include as many levels as you can.

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    32 Energy Flow A. Producers

    1. Energy From the Sun 2. Life Without Light

    B. Consumers C. Feeding Relationships

    1. Food Chains 2. Food Webs 3. Trophic Levels

    D. Ecological Pyramids 1. Energy Pyramid 2. Biomass Pyramid 3. Pyramid of Numbers

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    Section Outline

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    Flow of Energy

    sun

    Producer (Autotrophs)

    Photosynthesis (CO2 + H2O + Energy O2 + Glucose)

    (sun)

    Plants Bacteria Algae

    Light rays

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    Chemosynthesis

    Deep Sea Vents Hot Springs Tidal Marshes

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    Flow of Energy

    Consumers (Heterotrophs)

    Respiration (O2 + Glucose --> CO2 +H2O + Energy)

    (ATP)

    Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Detritivore Decomposer

    Plants Animals Both Remains Breaks Down Material

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    Feeding Relationships

    Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun, or inorganic compounds, to autotrophs and then, to various heterotrophs. This energy is passed along in a series of steps in which organisms eat or are eaten. This is called a food chain.

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    Food Webs

    A food web is a series of food chains that overlap in an ecosystem. Trophic Level - each step in a food chain. Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy.

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    Energy Pyramid

    Only part of the energy that is found in a trophic level is passed on to the next. Why? The organisms use the energy to carry out the life processes. Only about 10% of the energy is passed on to the next trophic level.

    Ecological Pyramids

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    Biomass Pyramid

    The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called biomass. Biomass is express in terms of grams of organic matter per unit area. The biomass pyramid expresses the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.

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    Pyramid of Numbers

    This pyramid is based on the number of organisms found in the ecosystem. Most of the time, the shape of the pyramid is the same as the biomass and energy pyramids. However, sometimes the shape changes. An example would be a forest ecosystem.

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    Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.

    Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.

    Energy Pyramid Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms use about 10 percent of this energy for life processes. The rest is lost as heat.

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    Ecological Pyramids

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    Its Raining, Its Pouring

    How many times have you had to change your plans because of rain? It probably didnt help if someone tried to cheer you up by saying, But we really need the rain. However, rain is important. If it didnt rain, how would living things on land get water?

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    Interest Grabber

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    1. When rain falls on the ground, it either soaks into the soil or runs across the surface of the soil. When rainwater runs across the land, what body of water might collect the rain?

    2. From here, where might the water flow?

    3. After the rain, the sun comes out and the land dries. Where does the water that had been on the land go?

    4. Construct a diagram that would illustrate all the places a molecule of water might go. Begin with a raindrop and end with a cloud.

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    33 Cycles of Matter A. Recycling in the Biosphere B. The Water Cycle C. Nutrient Cycles

    1. The Carbon Cycle 2. The Nitrogen Cycle 3. The Phosphorus Cycle

    D. Nutrient Limitation

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    Section Outline

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    Recycling in the Biosphere

    Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.

    Matter is passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another through biogeochemical cycles.

    Matter can cycle through the biosphere because biological systems do not use up matter, they transform it.

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    The Water Cycle

    All living things require water to survive as it moves through the ocean, atmosphere and land.

    Water enters the atmosphere through the processes of evaporation and transpiration and becomes vapor.

    As the vapor cools, it condenses to form tiny droplets. When the droplets get large enough, they fall back to

    Earth in the form of precipitation. When it reaches the surface of the Earth, it runs off back

    to the river and streams or it enters the ground water supply.

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    Section 3-3

    The Water Cycle

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    Nutrient Cycles

    The food you eat provides energy and chemicals that keep you alive. All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its nutrients.

    Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Like water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles.

    There are three nutrient cycles: 1. The Carbon Cycle 2. The Nitrogen Cycle 3. The Phosphorus Cycle

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    The Carbon Cycle Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. It is an im