Short presentation on the ceremonial event of International Year of Chemistry 2011
International year of chemistry & International year of forests
International year of chemistry & International year of forestsChemistry- Our Life,Our FutureCelebrate forests,celebrate lifeInternational year of chemistry 2011
Chemistry around us
Biochemistry-The future life
Artificial Insulin-some facts
Focus on InsulinInvented by Dr. Nicolae Paulescu.But there is controversy with Paulescu & Banting-McLeod approach.Actually all of them were awarded the Nobel Prize.Dr. Fredriech Sanger was given the Nobel for discovering the structure of Insulin in 1958.It is a non steroidial hormone.Focus on InsulinIt is constituted by 51 amino acids & molecular weight is about 5808 Da.Naturally produced from cells of Islets of Langerhans in Pancreas.Its major function is to control the Glucose level in blood.Why do we need artificial insulin?Insulin can not be produced by pancreas if:-i) cells are not working in a proper manner.ii)Insulin producing genes have disorders in it.The another cause of need of artificial production of insulin is:High costings and difficulties in the extraction of insulin from living creatures.How Insulin is prepared artificially?The bacteria E.coli is cultivated in a 3 molar solution of glucose containing 1:1 DMSO(Dimethyl Sulphoxide) along with 0.073 mili molar Zn2+ ions with a little Glucagon in it for 3 days.After the cultivation period the medium is decanted and insulin is taken off by special techniques.Antibiotics-the vital medicine
Focus on AntibioticsCompounds, mainly derived from various fungi,bacteria,actinomycetes,yeast or moulds.Effectively inhibits the growth of many microorganisms.Widely used in the treatment of infectious diseases.Focus on AntibioticsPenicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered by Dr.Alexander Fleming in 1928.He was awarded the Nobel Prize for such that great approach.Penicillin was also the first antibiotic to be used therapeutically.It was used firstly by Dr.Cecil George Paine in 1930 to treat sycosis vulgaris.How antibiotics are prepared?The main process of preparation involves fermentation of microorganisms in a selective culture media.Substrate levels are strictly controlled to get the maximum yield.Antibiotics are secondary metabolites.After completion of the process the antibiotics are extracted & purified to crystals using special techniques.How antibiotics are prepared?
Penicillium chrysogenum in LB BrothSome typical antibiotics with usesPenicillin group-against Tetanus,Rat bite fever,Anthrax & cocci bacterias.Ampicillin-against Gonorrhoea & Meningitis.Gentamycine group-against Septicemia & Streptococci-Enterococci bacterias.Tetracycline group-against Relapsing fever & Mycoplasma-Pastuerella infections.Hormonal therapy in oncology
Focus on hormonal therapyThe most recent use of hormonal therapy is in the treatment of cancer.Most of the hormones are derived from hormonally responsive tissues i.e. Adrenal Cortex.A very good replacement for Cytotoxic & Targetted Chemotherapy.These hormones are mainly of two types:i) Aromatase Inhibitors. ii) GnRH Analogs.Letrozole-SynthesisA non steroidial aromatase inhibitor finding its use against breast cancer.Synthesized from p-cyano benzylbromide;1,2,4 triazole & p-cyano fluorobenzene.
Disadvantages of Hormonal TherapyCan lead to complication with blood clots.May cause fatal changes in hormonal balances of body if strict precautions are not taken.Taxol-the next generation anticancer drug
Focus on taxolTaxol is a chemical compound with a formula of C47H51NO14 and a molecular weight of 853.90gm.mol-1.
Focus on taxolTaxol was invented by Dr.Wall & Wani in 1967.It was firstly invented in US National Cancer Institute.It is a cytotoxic chemotherapy agent.Taxol finds its use against Lung , Breast , Neck cancer.It is the first chemotherapy agent having no side effects.How Taxol is prepared?Taxol is extracted from Pacific Yew tree.Yew barks are mixed with absolute ethanol and refluxed for 8 hours.The solvent is then evaporated to get the taxol crystals.Artificial Taxol(identical to natural product) can be prepared from E.coli bacteria via terpenoid pathway reactions.Thank you for your co-ordinationProject presented by:-Soumalya Bhowmik&Dipayan BoseClass XII ScienceFanindra Dev Institution