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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING Soyiba Jawed

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING Soyiba Jawed. COURSE CONTENTS - CHAPTERS Fundamentals of Computer Computer Evolution Computer System Organization Programming

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  • INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTINGSoyiba Jawed

  • COURSE CONTENTS - CHAPTERSFundamentals of ComputerComputer EvolutionComputer System OrganizationProgramming LanguagesInformation system DevelopmentOperating Systems and Utility ProgramsCompilers and Language TranslationData Communication and NetworksContd..

  • COURSE CONTENTS - CHAPTERSInternet and World Wide WebArtificial IntelligenceSocial Issues

  • Grading % of Total MarksAssignments 20Mid-Term Exam 20Final Exam 50Quiz 10Total 100%

  • Required ReadingAn invitation to Computer Science, Schneider, G. Michael, 2nd EditionInformation Technology in Perspective, Long, Larry, 10th Edition.

  • Fundamentals Of ComputerIntroduction to Computer Software and HardwareComponents of a Computer (Input devices, Output devices, System Unit, Storage devices, Communication devices)Characteristics of a Computer

  • Introduction to Computer Software and HardwareA Computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data, process data into useful information and store it for later use.

  • Introduction to Computer Software and HardwareComputer word is derived from compute that means to calculate.Computer is used to perform arithmetic and logical operations.Input means to feed information into a computerWords, symbols, numbers, picturesData refers to the symbols that represent facts, ideas and objects

  • Introduction to Computer Software and HardwareProcessing is the way that a computer manipulates dataperforming calculationssorting lists and numbersdrawing graphsA computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU).A computer stores data so that it will be available for processing.

  • Introduction to Computer Software and HardwareMemory is an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processedVolatile memoryNon-volatile memoryStorage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis

  • Introduction to Computer Software and HardwareComputer output is the results produced by the computerReports, numbers, documents, music, graphs, picturesAn output device displays, prints or transmits the results of processing.

  • Introduction to Computer Software and Hardware

  • Introduction to Computer Software and HardwareA computer consists of Software and Hardware, that is the machine is known as Hardware and Programs are called as Software.SoftwareSoftware is a set of instructions that tells a computer what to do, a computer works according to the given instructions in the software.Software cannot be executed without hardware.Software is debugged in case of problem and is reinstalled if the problem is not solved.

  • Introduction to Computer Software and HardwareHardwareHardware is physical parts of computer that cause processing of data.Hardware cannot perform any task without software.Hardware is repaired in case of problem and is replaced if the problem is not solved.

  • Components of ComputerDifferent components of computer are as follows:

  • Components of ComputerInput devicesThe data or instructions given to the computer is called input, and a hardware component used to enter data and instruction into computer is called input device.Following are the most commonly used input devices:Keyboard: It is used to enter text, which contains alphabetic, numeric and other keys for entering different type of data.

  • Components of ComputerMouse: It is a pointing device, that controls pointer on the screen, user gives instructions to the computer through mouse.Microphone: It is used to enter voice into the computer.Scanner: It reads printed text and graphics and translates the results in digital form.Digital Camera: It is used to take and store picture in digital form.PC Camera: It is used to create movie and take photos on the computer, and is also used to make a video phone call.

  • Components of ComputerOutput devicesThe data processed in useful information is called Output, and the hardware component used to display information to the user is called Output device.Following are the most commonly used output devices:Monitor: Monitor is used to display text, graphics and video output.

  • Components of ComputerInput / Output Devices

  • Components of ComputerInput / Output Devices

  • Components of ComputerPrinter: It is used to display printed output on paper or transparency.Speaker: Speaker is used to hear sound, music and voice output.System UnitSystem Unit is a box that contains different electronic components of computer system, it is also called System Cabinet or Chassis.It protects the internal components from damage.The electronic components in the system unit are connected to motherboard.

  • Components of ComputerMother board is also known as system board or main board.Important components of system unit are as follows:Central Processing Unit (CPU): It is also called as Processor, that is the Brain of the Computer.It is the most important component of a computer, it interprets and executes instructions in the computer.Memory: The hardware component that stores data and instructions temporarily is called memory, that is also called primary memory or main memory.

  • Components of ComputerMain memory consists of electronic chips connected to mother board, It is used to store data before processing.It also stores processed data after processing until the data is sent to output device.The main memory also called volatile because its contents are lost when the computer is turned off.

  • System Unit

  • System Unit

  • Mother Board

  • Components of ComputerStorage devicesThe hardware components used to store data, instructions and information permanently are called storage devices.It is called non - volatile because its contents remain safe when the computer is turned off.Some important storage devices are floppy disk drive, zip drive, hard disk drive, CD - ROM drive, CD - RW drive, DVD - ROM drive etc.

  • Components of ComputerCommunication devicesThe hardware components used to communicate and exchange data, instructions and information with other computers are called communication devices.An important communication device is called Modem, which enables the computer to communicate with other computers via telephone line or cable.

  • Characteristics of ComputerFollowing are important characteristics of computer:SpeedComputers work at a very high speed and are much faster than humans.A computer can perform billions of calculations in a second.The time used by a computer to perform an operation is called as the processing speed, that is measured in Mega Hertz (MHz) or Giga Hertz (GHz).

  • Characteristics of ComputerStorageA computer can store large amounts of data permanently, which can be used at any time.Any type of data such as text, graphics, pictures, audio, and video files can be stored easily.ProcessingComputer can perform different types of processing like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It can also perform logical functions as well.

  • Characteristics of ComputerAccuracyAccuracy means to provide results without any error, computer can process large amounts of data and generate error - free results.A modern computer can perform millions of operations in one second without any error.RecallingA computer can recall the stored data and information as and when required, in a few seconds.

  • Characteristics of ComputerControl SequenceA computer works strictly according to the given instructions, it follows the same sequence of execution that is given in a program.ConsistencyComputer works in a consistent way, it does not lose concentration due to heavy work, therefore it performs all jobs with equal attention.

  • Characteristics of ComputerCommunicationA computer can be connected with other computers by a communication device such as a modem.These computers can share data, instructions and information (eg; Internet).VersatileComputer can perform different type of task, it can be used in hospital, bank or ay home.A variety of facilities are available through computers.