Invertebrate Biology

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Invertebrate Biology. Chapter 33. Phylogentic Relationships of Animals. Platyhelminthes. Porifera. Mollusca. Chordata. Arthropoda. Annelida. Cnideria. Nematoda. Echinodermata. pseudocoelom. segmentation. acoelom. Protostome: schizocoelem. Deuterostomes: eucoelom. radial symmetry. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Phylogentic Relationships of AnimalsAncestral Protistsegmentationtrue tissueradial symmetrybilateral symmetryDeuterostomes:eucoelomProtostome: schizocoelempseudocoelomPoriferaCnideriaPlatyhelminthesNematodaMolluscaAnnelidaEchinodermataChordataArthropodano true tissuesacoelom

  • Eukaryotic, multicellular organisms with cells organized into distinct tissues.Heterotrophic nutritionMost exhibit significant capacity for locomotion.No cell walls; has a plasma membrane.Includes sponges, sea anemones, snails, insects, sea stars, fish, reptiles, birds, and human beings.Kingdom Animalia

  • Phylum PoriferaClass DesmospongiaeClass CalcareaClass HexactinellidaClass Sclerospongia

  • No true tissues or organsNo symmetryNo nerves, muscles, mouth or digestive system or SessileReproduce sexually and asexuallySkeletons composed of CaCO3 or SiO2 spicules or sponginFilter feeders

    Phylum Porifera5,000 species

  • Consists of organized cells supported by a skeleton of:spongin fiberscalcareous spiculessilica spiculesa combination of these, or perhaps no skeletal structure at all

  • No GutSpongesPhylum Porifera

  • A few species of fishseaslugs hawks bill and loggerhead turtles

    Can use toxins to ward off predators

  • Sponges provide habitat for wide variety of animals. As many as 16,000 different species of animals have been found in one loggerhead sponge.

  • Most marine sponges (>80%)All freshwater spongesLeuconoidSpongin and SiO2 spicules

  • Contains all asconoid formsMost syconoidsGenerally small in statureCaCO3 spicules

  • Mostly deep sea forms Glass-like lattice workSiO2 spicules

  • CaCO3 foundation with SiO2 spiculesFound in Pacific and West Indies

  • Asexual: production ofexternal buds that detach or remain to form colonies internal buds called gemmules that form during unfavorable periodsfragmentation (regeneration)

    Sexual (mostly hermaphroditic):eggs are retained in the mesohyl and fertilized by motile sperm that enter through the internal canals. Zygotes develop into flagellated larvae, which break loose and are carried away by water currents.

  • Phylum CnidariaClass AnthozoaClass HydrozoaClass ScyphozoaClass CubozoaCoralsAnemonesHydraPortuguese Man-Of-WarStinging LimuFire CoralTrue jellyfishBox jelliesSea wasps

  • Phylum CnidariaStinging cells & 2 stages in life cycleRadial symmetryTissues and organsDiploblasticMouth and digestive cavity (blind sac gut)9,000 species

  • PolypMedusagastrovascular cavitygastrovascular cavitygastrodermismesogleaepidermismouth/anusmouth/anus

  • The Cnidarian Life CycleThe Hydrozoan Life Cycle

  • Nematocysts

  • Stinging LimuClass Hydrozoa

  • Hydrozoan Medusa

  • Close Up of a Portuguese Man-Of-WarClass Hydrozoa

  • Class Scyphozoa

  • Box JelliesSeawaspClass Cubozoa

  • Subclass ZoanthariaOrder ActinariaSea AnemonesClass Anthozoa

  • Subclass HexacoralliaOrder AntipatheriaBlack Coral & Wire CoralWire coralBlack coralClass Anthozoa

  • True Stony CoralslobefingermushroomPorites rusClass Anthozoa

  • Phylum CtenophoraDiploblastic8 rows or combs of cilliaColloblasts- adhesive structuresHydrostatic skeletonBlind sack gut

  • Phylum PlatyhelminthesClass TurbellariaClass TrematodaClass Cestoda

  • Phylum PlatyhelminthesFlatwormsBlind digestive cavityBilaterally symmetricalThin, simple circulationSensory organs at frontMany parasitic10,000 species

  • Fig. 33-10PharynxGastrovascularcavityMouthEyespotsGangliaVentral nerve cordsClass TurbellariaFlatworm Anatomy

  • Pseudoceros dimidiatus Pseudoceros cf. rubroanus Pseudoceros ferrugineus Pseudobiceros sp. Planocera cf. oligoglena

  • Life History of a Blood FlukeClass Trematoda

  • Class Cestoda

  • Bilaterally symmetrical and dorsoventrally flattened.Body has more than two layers of cells with tissues and organs. Body has a through gut with a mouth and anus. Body has no body cavity. Has a blood system with blood vessels. Has a well developed nervous system and a brain. Has an eversible and retractable ectodermal proboscis.Reproduction is by asexual fragmentation, or sexual, when it is normally gonochoristic. Most species are carnivorous and predatory. Most are aquatic and marine, there are some terrestrial and freshwater forms.

    Phylum Nemertea

  • Phylum NemerteaRibbon worm

  • Phylum RotiferaBilaterally symmetrical. Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Body cavity is a pseudocoelom. Body possesses a through gut with an anus. Body covered in an external layer of chitin called a lorica.Has a nervous system with a brain and paired nerves. Has no circulatory or respiratory organs. Reproduction mostly parthenogenetic, otherwise sexual and gonochoristic. Feed on bacteria, and protista, or are parasitic. All live in aquatic environments either free swimming or attached

  • Phylum Rotifera

  • Phylum NematodaRoundwormsPrimitive body cavityGut & AnusNo circulatory systemNervous systemVery successful- well adapted to every ecosystemMany are parasites500,000? species

  • Phylum Nematoda

  • Phylum MolluscaClass PolyplacophoraClass GastropodaClass BivalviaClass CephalopodaMore than 500,000 known specieschitonsSnailsnudibranchsclamsSquidOctopusCuttlefishNautilus

  • Phylum MolluscaWell developed circulatory systemNervous system with brainSome with good eyes

  • Three main parts:Muscular foot- for movementVisceral mass- contains most of the internal organsMantle cavity- houses gills

  • mantlefootvisceral mass

  • Grazers (radula- scraping tongue)Filter feedingEgg eatersActive predation

  • Class Polyplacophora

  • Spanish Dancer (nudibranch) & egg massClass GastropodaSubclass Opisthobranchia

  • Cone shellTritons trumpetCoweryOpihiperiwinkleClass GastropodaSubclass Prosobranchia

  • Class Bivalvia

  • Class CephalopodaDay octopus

  • Class Cephalopoda

  • Class Cephalopoda

  • Class Cephalopoda

  • Octopus Intelligence

  • Mimic octopus from IndonesiaflatfishlionfishSea snake

  • Blue-ringed octopusHighly venomous

  • Phylum AnnelidaClass OligochaetaClass PolychaetaClass HirudiniaearthwormleachesMarine worms

  • Phylum AnnelidaSegmented worms, earthworms, leechesMarine = polychaetesTrue body cavityLong tubular bodyMuscles9,000 species

  • Class Oligochaeta

  • Class Polychaeta

  • Class Hirudinia

  • Segmentation (metameric body plan)Eucoelomate15,000 speciesClosed circulatory system, but no heartHydrostatic skeletonExcretion- protonephridia, metanephridia, diffusion or gillsSimple gutRespiration- diffusion or gillsCentral nervous system- brain and nerve cordReproduction- asexual or sexual (many gonochoric)Sensory system of tactile organs, taste buds, statocysts, photoreceptor cells, and eyes with lenses.

  • FEEDING MODES- very diverse RaptorsHerbivoresBrowsers/grazersOmnivoresDirect deposit feedersIndirect deposit feedersSuspension feeders

  • Phylum ArthropodaSubphylum Trilobitomorpha SubphylumCheliceriformesSubphylum UniramiaSubphylum Crustaceatrilobitesspidersticksscorpionsinsectscentipedesmillipedescrabslobstersshrimpbarnacles

  • Phylogeny of ArthropodsArthropodaWorm-likeAncestorTrilobites(extinct)Annelids(worms)Onychophorans(worms w/legs)Chelicerates(spiders)Crustaceans(lobsters)Insects(butterflies)

  • Insects, crabs, spiders, barnaclesMost species; 80% are insectsHard chitin exoskeleton (must shed to grow)Circulatory system with blood, heart10,000,000? speciesPhylum Arthropoda

  • Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Extinct Existed: 543-248 mya

  • Fig. 33-30SubphylumCheliceriformes

  • SubphylumCheliceriformesSea spider

  • Subphylum UniramiaKoa Bug

  • (a) Larva (caterpillar)(b) Pupa(c) Later-stage pupa(d) Emerging adult(e) AdultMetamorphosis of a Butterfly

  • Banded coral shrimpSpiny lobsterHawaiian cleaner shrimpYellow spotted guard crabAnemone carrying hermit crabSubphylum Crustacea

  • Phylum EchinodermataClass AstroidaeClass OphiuroidaeClass EchinoidaeClass HolothuroidaeClass CrinoidaeSea stars Brittle starsCrinoidsSea urchinsSea cucumbers

  • Phylum EchinodermataNo circulatory systemNo respiratory systemExcretion (N elimination) by diffusionSimple nervous system, no brainWater-vascular system

  • Sea Star Anatomy

  • Phylum EchinodermataTube feet & associated plumbingUsed for walking, clinging to substrate & holding foodWater Vascular System

  • Linckia sp.Acanthaster planciClass Astroidae

  • Class Ophiuroidae

  • Class Crinoidae

  • Echinometra mathaeiColobocentrotus atratusEchinothrix calamarisSlate pencil urchinCollector urchinClass Echinoidae

  • Holothuria atraPolyplectana kerfersteniniiClass Holothuroidae

    The Nemerteans show the most advanced development of all the acoelomate phyla, in some books they are also referred to as the Rhynchocoela, Nemertinea, Nemertina or Nemertini. They are a quite successful phylum (900 named species)of mostly marine worms that are generally characterised by being extremely long and thin. Lineus longissimus has been recorded being 30 metres long while still only a few millimetres wide and some scientists estimate they may reach 60 metres in length, if a specimen this long is ever found it will become the longest animal in the world. Nature likes to e