Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military ... of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications by David M. Spagnuolo, Eugene Napadensky, Tomoko Sano, and James P

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  • Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military

    Applications

    by David M. Spagnuolo, Eugene Napadensky, Tomoko Sano,

    and James P. Wolbert

    ARL-TR-5815 November 2011

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • NOTICES

    Disclaimers

    The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless

    so designated by other authorized documents.

    Citation of manufacturers or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the

    use thereof.

    Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator.

  • i

    Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069

    ARL-TR-5815 November 2011

    Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military

    Applications

    David M. Spagnuolo, Eugene Napadensky, Tomoko Sano,

    and James P. Wolbert Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • ii

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

    Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number.

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS.

    1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)

    November 2011

    2. REPORT TYPE

    Final

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To)

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

    Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

    5b. GRANT NUMBER

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

    6. AUTHOR(S)

    David M. Spagnuolo, Eugene Napadensky, Tomoko Sano, and James P. Wolbert

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER

    5e. TASK NUMBER

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

    U.S. Army Research Laboratory

    ATTN: RDRL-WMM-A

    Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

    ARL-TR-5815

    9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

    10. SPONSOR/MONITORS ACRONYM(S)

    11. SPONSOR/MONITOR'S REPORT NUMBER(S)

    12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    14. ABSTRACT

    This report investigates the use of basalt fibers in a composite along with SC-15 epoxy resin for ballistic protection. Basalt

    fibers are not known as a ballistic material but rather as a structural one. Even though basalt fibers are not expected to

    outperform some of the higher ballistic performing materials such as the aramid and polyethylene fibers; however, due to the

    lower manufacturing costs, basalt fibers are an interesting alternative. The objective of this project was to gain a basic

    understanding of the properties of basalt fibers and their potential use for certain military applications. Therefore, some of the

    basic mechanical tests were used as a tool to compare properties to an S-2 glass epoxy system. The same was true for the

    ballistic tests that were performed. The basic mechanical tests used for comparative studies were flexural, tensile, and short-

    beam shear strength. The basalt epoxy composites compared well with S-2 properties. Fragment tests were also investigated

    for two areal densities, 1-psf and 5-psf systems, using a 17- and 44-gn fragment simulating projectile (FSP), respectively.

    Again, the basalt epoxy performed well for these tests as compared to an S-2 similar system.

    15. SUBJECT TERMS

    Basalt, epoxy, S-2 glass, ballistic, V50

    16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    UU

    18. NUMBER OF PAGES

    28

    19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

    David M. Spagnuolo a. REPORT

    Unclassified

    b. ABSTRACT

    Unclassified

    c. THIS PAGE

    Unclassified

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code)

    410-306-0770

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98)

    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

  • iii

    Contents

    List of Figures iv

    List of Tables iv

    Acknowledgments v

    1. Introduction 1

    2. Test Methodology 2

    2.1 Materials ..........................................................................................................................2

    2.2 Composite Fabrication ....................................................................................................3

    2.3 Mechanical Testing .........................................................................................................5

    2.4 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy .....................................................................................6

    2.5 Ballistic Testing ...............................................................................................................6

    3. Results 7

    3.1 Mechanical Testing .........................................................................................................7

    3.2 EDS Discussion .............................................................................................................12

    3.3 Ballistic Testing .............................................................................................................13

    4. Conclusions 14

    5. References 16

    Appendix. Average Values and Standard Deviations for All Mechanical Tests 17

    List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 18

    Distribution List 19

  • iv

    List of Figures

    Figure 1. Basalt rock. ......................................................................................................................1

    Figure 2. Three weave styles investigated. .....................................................................................3

    Figure 3. Typical VARTM process. ...............................................................................................4

    Figure 4. Short-beam shear test experimental set-up. .....................................................................6

    Figure 5. Typical flexural plot for basalt-epoxy composite. ...........................................................8

    Figure 6. Flexural modulus basalt vs. S-2 glass/epoxy. ..................................................................8

    Figure 7. Flexural strength basalt vs. S-2 glass/epoxy....................................................................9

    Figure 8. Short beam shear basalt vs. S-2 glass/epoxy. ................................................................10

    Figure 9. Modulus of elasticity for basalt vs. S-2 glass/epoxy. ....................................................11

    Figure 10. Ultimate tensile strength basalt vs. S-2 glass/epoxy. ..................................................12

    Figure 11. V50 for 17-gn FSP.......................................................................................................13

    Figure 12. V50 for 44-gn FSP.......................................................................................................14

    List of Tables

    Table 1. Product information. .........................................................................................................3

    Table 2. Test methods and ply counts. ............................................................................................5

    Table 3. Mechanical test data normalized to S-2 glass/epoxy. .....................................................12

    Table A-1. Average values and standard deviations for all mechanical tests. ...............................17

  • v

    Acknowledgments

    Special thanks go out to a great group of technicians who did all the dirty work fabricating and

    machining the composite test coupons: Mike Neblett, Rob Miller, Matt Gilley, Fred Racine and

    Mike Thompson. Thanks to all the helping hands working out at the Survivability/Lethality

    Analysis Directorate (SLAD) Peep site, with a special thanks to Rob Kinsler and Rick Kane. We

    also thank John Brown, David Gray, and Paul Moy for all the mechanical testing portion of this

    work. For those who we may have missed, thank you so much for all your help in acquiring the

    info within.

  • vi

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.

  • 1

    1. Introduction

    Basalt rock (figure 1) is a black or gray, fine-grained rock classified in the family of igneous

    rocks, formed by cooling of molten lava. It is commonly found in the Earths crust, is abundant

    throughout the world, and can be easily mined. Basalt rock possesses certain qualities similar to

    thermoplastics and metals, i.e., it melts when heated to specific temperatures (11001300 C)

    and can be drawn into flexible fibers, a process similar to manufacture of S-2 and E-glass fiber