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Israel & Palestine: Roots of the Conflict

Israel & Palestine: Roots of the Conflict. A. Religious History: Jews and Muslims both trace their roots back to the land now known as Israel Descendents

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  • Israel & Palestine:Roots of the Conflict

  • A. Religious History:Jews and Muslims both trace their roots back to the land now known as Israel Descendents of Abraham Gods chosen people Land promised to them

  • B. Late 1800s in Europe:Persecution in Europe led many Jews to believe they would only be safe in their own state Political movement called Zionism Jews begin moving to the region, live along side Arabs

  • C. After World War I:Britain now governs Palestine Adopt the Jewish claim for a homeland in 1917 (Balfour Declaration.) Hundreds of thousands of Jews immigrate to Palestine Leads to an Arab revolt, but the Palestinians are crushed

  • D. After World War II:Survivors of the Holocaust seek out Palestine as a place of refuge Believe this land was pledged to them as a Jewish homeland British limit immigration to try and keep the peace

  • E. United Nations ControlViolence forces the British to turn the problem over to the U.N.Decide to create separate Jewish and Arab statesJerusalem controlled by U.N. Palestinians reject this plan, Jews accept

  • F. Israel Established:1948: Jewish settlers in Palestine declare the state of Israel Must defend themselves against 5 neighboring Arab nations (E, S, I, J, & L) Surprisingly Israel wins and claims more Palestinian land

  • G. Suez Canal Dispute:Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal to fund the Aswan Dam project Britain & France owned shares, need this trade route Ally with Israel, going to war against Egypt U.N. calls for cease fire

  • H. Six Day War:1967: Arab countries still oppose the state of Israel 20 years later Again, Israel must fight alone Crush Egypt, Jordan, & Syria Take Sinai, Gaza, West Bank, and Golan Heights (2 x size) U.N. calls for their withdrawal

  • I. Palestine Liberation Organization:Plan to liberate Palestine by force Led by Yasser Arafat

    Wanted the world to recognize the injustice that had happened Hijacked planes blown up, 11 Israeli athletes killed at the Munich Olympics

  • J. Yom Kippur War:Egypt and Syria attack Israel to regain their lost territories Sinai and Golan Heights Saudi Arabia leads an oil embargo on any allies of Israel U.N. calls for cease fire and peace negotiations

  • K. Camp David Accords:U.S. helps coordinate a peace agreement between Egypt & Israel First nation to recognize Israel Israel returns the Sinai to Egypt, but keeps the Gaza Strip Egyptian President assassinated by those opposing peace with Israel

  • L. Golan Heights Annexed:Israel annexes the Golan Heights in 1981 Land captured from Syria Still a disputed territory today Condemned internationally, not recognized by the U.N.

  • Israel invades Lebanon in response to terrorist attacks from PLO guerrillas based there. In 1985, Israel withdraws from most of Lebanon but maintains security zone along border policed by Israeli soldiers and members of the South Lebanese Army. Syria stations troops in Lebanon.June 1982-Dec. 1985

  • Rioting in the Gaza Strip launches the intifada, or uprising, against Israeli rule in the occupied territories.Dec. 8, 1987M. First Intifada

  • Peace agreement between Israel and the PLO, is signed in Washington. It provides for limited Palestinian control in the West Bank and Gaza.Sept. 10-13, 1993N. Oslo Accords

  • Palestinian Loss of Land

  • Israel's hard-line opposition leader Ariel Sharon visits Jerusalem shrine know as Temple Mount to Jews and Noble Sanctuary to Muslims. Palestinians riot. Six Palestinians are killed and close to 200 wounded in clashes at the shrine.Sept. 28-30, 2000O. Ariel Sharon

  • P. Second IntifadaThe violent Palestinian-Israeli conflict from September 2000 to 2005

  • Ariel Sharon defeats Ehud Barak in the Israeli election for prime minister.Sept. 28-Dec. 31 2000

  • Dec. 1-7, 2001Palestinian suicide attacks kill 25 people in Jerusalem and the northern port city of Haifa and bring the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to a new crisis point. Israel responds with two days of military strikes targeting Gaza and the West Bank.

  • Dec. 1-7, 2001Two Palestinians are killed and the strikes hit a security station near and office where Arafat works. Israeli tanks and troops roll into the Gaza Strip city and Khan Younis on Dec. 7

  • Q. HamasIslamist group that governs Gaza. Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, and has a militant wing that carries out attacks on Israel. Hamas has said it considers it a religious duty to eliminate Israel.

  • The West Bank: Located between Israel on the west and the Jordan River, Dead Sea, and country of Jordan on the east Remains a territory, not an independent country (not recognized by UN, US, or Israel UN status upgraded to nonvoting observer status) Contains 3 million Palestinians and around 300,000 Israelis Palestinian Authority governs parts of the West Bank, while Hamas governs the Gaza Strip

  • Why Build the Wall? Israel believes terrorists organizations have operated out of Gaza and the West Bank Carrying out attacks in Israel Wall is intended to keep them out Many Palestinians believe the wall marks the beginnings to the border of the future Palestinian state The wall has deviated away from the Green Line, taking in Jewish settlements and decreasing the size of the West Bank

  • When did refugees begin leaving? 1948: refugees began leaving when Jews received permission from the British (U.S. & Fr.) to establish their new country 1967: UN begins establishing refugee camps when huge numbers of Palestinians fled during the Six Day War Goal political identity and return of their homeland

  • Where have refugees gone? Scattered across the West Bank, Gaza, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon In over 50 different registered camps plots of land leased by host governments (to UNRWA) Land not owned by refugees, but homes can be built Substandard housing, poor roads, lack clean water/sanitation/electricity Few job opportunities & densely populated

  • Problems? Some growing refugee population have exceeded those of local population in some areas Hamas (anti-Israel group in Gaza): has openly supported rocket attacks against Israel (Israel reciprocates with their own)

  • R. Israeli Walla barrier being constructed by the State of Israel. It consists of a network of fences The barrier is built mainly in the West Bank

    *Iraq*No notes*Clinton, Rabin and Yasser Arafat historic signing of the accords*The State of Palestine is recognized today by approximately two-thirds of the world's countriesThe status quo remains with HAMAS (terrorist org.) in control of the Gaza Strip and ABBAS and the Fatah-dominated PA governing the West Bank. The current status of the West Bank is subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew from four settlements in the northern West Bank and the Gaza Strip in August 2005