JAMES BUCHANAN DEMOCRAT JOHN “PATHFINDER” FREEMONT REPUBLICAN – united against the spread of slavery in the West MILLARD FILLMORE American Party /Know-Nothing

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Slide 2 Slide 3 JAMES BUCHANAN DEMOCRAT JOHN PATHFINDER FREEMONT REPUBLICAN united against the spread of slavery in the West MILLARD FILLMORE American Party /Know-Nothing Party (Whigs & Democrats Slide 4 BUCHANAN DEMOCRAT FREMONT REPUBLICAN FILLMORE KNOW NOTHING Slide 5 Old Buck Patriotic, Conservative many dislike him Pro-Southern From Pennsylvania Only president who remained a bachelor Slide 6 DRED SCOTT V. SANFORDSCOTT IS A SLAVE LIVED IN ILLINOIS (5 YEARS IN WISCONSIN) NO SLAVERY PERMITTED IN THE NORTH SO HE SUES FOR HIS FREEDOM CASE GETS TO THE SUPREME COURT CHIEF JUSTICE TANEY SCOTT LOSES 7-2 HE IS NOT A CITIZEN A SLAVE IS STILL A SLAVE IN A FREE STATE MISSOURI COMPROMISE IS UNCONSTITUTIONAL Slide 7 FEAR THAT SLAVERY COULD NOW BE PERMITTED IN NORTHERN STATES FREE BLACKS WORRY Destroys and voids all other compromises! -Missouri Compromise restriction on slavery north or 36 0 30 5 th amendment said no one could be deprived of life, liberty, or property Because slaves were property Congress had no right to ban slavery in any federal territory SPLIT THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY (NORTH & SOUTH) DECISION SUPPORTED BY BUCHANAN APPEARS TO MAKE SLAVERY CONSTITUTIONAL! Slide 8 Slide 9 LINCOLN & DOUGLAS ARE RUNNING FOR SENATE IN 1856 (ILLINOIS) A SERIES OF 7 DEBATES Both are very different Slide 10 DOUGLAS SUPPORTS POPULAR SOVEREIGNITY LINCOLN TRICKS HIM INTO SAYING HE IS AGAINST THE DRED SCOTT DECISION DOUGLAS WINS ELECTION, BUT REPUTATION IS HURT LINCOLN GETS NATIONAL ATTENTION HOUSE DIVIDE STRUG Slide 11 BROWN WANTS TO START A SLAVE REVOLT ATTACKS FEDERAL ARSENAL AT HARPERS FERRY FEDERAL TROOPS SURROUND ARSENAL BROWN CAPTURED BROWN IS TRIED & HANGED BROWN BECOMES A MARTYR SOUTH FEARS SLAVE REBELLIONS BLOOD A person who willingly suffers death Slide 12 DOUGLAS Northern Democratic: Popular sovereignty BRECKINRIDGE Southern Democratic: Add Cuba expand slavery BELL Constitutional Union Party: Follow the Constitution LINCOLN Republican: Stop expansion of slavery Slide 13 Slide 14 South had threatened to leave if Lincoln was elected. SECEDE: TO LEAVE OR WITHDRAW FROM THE UNION Slide 15 SOUTH CAROLINA FIRST TO LEAVE DECEMBER 20, 1860 SIX OTHERS BY FEBRUARY Mississippi: Jan.9, 1861 Florida: Jan. 10, 1861 Alabama: Jan. 11, 1861 Georgia: Jan. 19, 1861 Louisiana: Jan. 26, 1861 Texas: Feb. 1, 1861 Later Virginia: April 17, 1861 Arkansas: May 6, 1861 North Carolina: May 20, 1861 Tennessee: June 8, 1861 Slide 16 Slide 17 LET STATES GO PEACEFULLY OR? NO Slide 18 FEBRUARY 1861 LINCOLN ENTERS WASHINGTON IN SECRET ADDRESS: Uphold law, Uphold the union, Pledges not to interfere with slavery Blames south for problems SP Slide 19 APRIL 1861 CHARLESTOWN SC UNION FORT SC ATTACKS! Slide 20 36 HOURS OF BOMBARDMENT ANDERSON SURRENDERS MORE STATES SECEDE LINCOLN CALLS FOR VOLUNTEERS & BLAMES THE SOUTH