Japanese Rock Garden

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The article describe Japanese rock garden. They were built in temples to aid monks to meditate.

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  • 7/11/2015 JapaneserockgardenWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_rock_garden 1/11

    Ryanji(late15thcentury)inKyoto,Japan,afamousexampleofazengarden

    Amountain,waterfall,andgravel"river"atDaisenin(15091513)

    JapaneserockgardenFromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    TheJapaneserockgarden(karesansui)or"drylandscape"garden,oftencalledazengarden,createsaminiaturestylizedlandscapethroughcarefullycomposedarrangementsofrocks,waterfeatures,moss,prunedtreesandbushes,andusesgravelorsandthatisrakedtorepresentripplesinwater.[1]Azengardenisusuallyrelativelysmall,surroundedbyawall,andisusuallymeanttobeseenwhileseatedfromasingleviewpointoutsidethegarden,suchastheporchofthehojo,theresidenceofthechiefmonkofthetempleormonastery.ClassicalzengardenswerecreatedattemplesofZenBuddhisminKyoto,JapanduringtheMuromachiPeriod.Theywereintendedtoimitatetheintimateessenceofnature,notitsactualappearance,andtoserveanaidtomeditationaboutthetruemeaningoflife.[2]

    Contents

    1History1.1EarlyJapaneserockgardens1.2ZenBuddhismandtheMuromachiPeriod(13361573)1.3Laterrockgardens

    2Selectionandarrangementofrocks3Sandandgravel4Symbolism5LandscapepaintingandtheZengardencritique6Seealso7List8References9Bibliography

    9.1Note10Externallinks

    History

    EarlyJapaneserockgardens

    RockgardensexistedinJapanatleastsincetheHeianPeriod(7841185).TheseearlygardensweredescribedinthefirstmanualofJapanesegardens,Sakuteiki(RecordsofGardenKeeping),writtenattheendofthe11thcenturybyTachibananoToshitsuna(10281094).TheywerelargelycopiedfromtheChinesegardensoftheSongDynasty(9601279),wheregroupsofrockssymbolizedMountPenglai,thelegendarymountainislandhomeoftheEightImmortalsinChinesemythology,knowninJapaneseasHorai.[3]TheSakuteikidescribedexactlyhowrocksshouldbeplaced.Inonepassage,hewrote:"Inaplacewherethereisneitheralakeorastream,onecanputinplacewhatiscalledakaresansui,ordry

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    landscape..."Thiskindofgardenfeaturedeitherrocksplaceduprightlikemountains,orlaidoutinaminiaturelandscapeofhillsandravines,withfewplants.Hedescribedseveralotherstylesofrockgarden,whichusuallyincludedastreamorpond,includingthegreatriverstyle,themountainriverstyle,andthemarshstyle.Theoceanstylefeaturedrocksthatappearedtohavebeenerodedbywaves,surroundedbyabankofwhitesand,likeabeach.[4]

    WhitesandandgravelhadlongbeenafeatureofJapanesegardens.IntheShintoreligion,itwasusedtosymbolizepurity,andwasusedaroundshrines,temples,andpalaces.Inzengardens,itrepresentswater,or,likethewhitespaceinJapanesepaintings,emptinessanddistance.Theyareplacesofmeditation.

    ZenBuddhismandtheMuromachiPeriod(13361573)

    TheMuromachiPeriodinJapan,whichtookplaceatroughlythesametimeastheRenaissanceinEurope,wascharacterizedbypoliticalrivalrieswhichfrequentlyledtowars,butalsobyanextraordinaryflourishingofJapaneseculture.ItsawthebeginningofNohtheater,theJapaneseteaceremony,theshoinstyleofJapanesearchitecture,andthezengarden.[5]

    ZenBuddhismwasintroducedintoJapanattheendofthe12thcentury,andquicklyachievedawidefollowing,particularlyamongtheSamuraiclassandwarlords,whoadmireditsdoctrineofselfdiscipline.ThegardensoftheearlyzentemplesinJapanresembledChinesegardensofthetime,withlakesandislands.ButinKyotointhe14thand15thcentury,anewkindofgardenappearedattheimportantzentemples.Thesezengardensweredesignedtostimulatemeditation."Nature,ifyoumadeitexpressivebyreducingittoitsabstractforms,couldtransmitthemostprofoundthoughtsbyitssimplepresence",MichelBaridonwrote."Thecompositionsofstone,alreadycommonChina,becameinJapan,veritablepetrifiedlandscapes,whichseemedsuspendedintime,asinacertainmomentsofNohtheater,whichdatestothesameperiod."[6]

    ThefirstgardentobeginthetransitiontothenewstyleisconsideredbymanyexpertstobeSaihji,"TheTempleofthePerfumesoftheWest,"popularlyknownasKokedera,theMossGarden,inthewesternpartofKyoto.TheBuddhistmonkandzenmasterMusKokushitransformedaBuddhisttempleintoazenmonasteryin1334,andbuiltthegardens.ThelowergardenofSaihjiisinthetraditionalHeianPeriodstyleapondwithseveralrockcompositionsrepresentingislands.Theuppergardenisadryrockgardenwhichfeaturesthreerock"islands."Thefirst,calledKameshima,theislandoftheturtle,resemblesaturtleswimmingina"lake"ofmoss.Thesecond,Zazenseki,isaflat"meditationrock,"whichisbelievedtoradiatecalmandsilenceandthethirdisthekaretaki,adry"waterfall"composedofastairwayofflatgraniterocks.Themosswhichnowsurroundstherocksandrepresentswater,wasnotpartoftheoriginalgardenplanitgrewseveralcenturieslaterwhenthegardenwasleftuntended,butnowisthemostfamousfeatureofthegarden.[7]

    MusoKokushibuiltanothertemplegardenatTenryji,the"TempleoftheCelestialDragon".ThisgardenappearstohavebeenstronglyinfluencedbyChineselandscapepaintingoftheSongDynastywhichfeaturemountainsrisinginthemist,andasuggestionofgreatdepthandheight.ThegardenatTenryjihasarealpondwithwaterandadrywaterfallofrockslookinglikeaChineselandscape.SaihjiandTenryjishowthetransitionfromtheHeianstylegardentowardamoreabstractandstylizedviewofnature.[7]

    ThegardensofGinkakuji,alsoknownastheSilverPavilion,arealsoattributedtoMusoKokushi.Thistemplegardenincludedatraditionalpondgarden,butithadanewfeatureforaJapanesegardenanareaofrakedwhitegravelwithaperfectlyshapedmountainofwhitegravel,resemblingMountFuji,inthe

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    center.Thescenewascalledginshanada,literally"sandofsilverandopensea".Thisgardenfeaturebecameknownaskogetsudai,orsmallmountainfacingthemoon,"andsimilarsmallMountFujismadeofsandorearthcoveredwithgrassappearedinJapanesegardensforcenturiesafterwards.[8]

    ThemostfamousofallzengardensinKyotoisRyanji,builtinthelate15thcenturywhereforthefirsttimethezengardenbecamepurelyabstract.Thegardenisarectangleof340squaremeters.[9]Placedwithinitarefifteenstonesofdifferentsizes,carefullycomposedinfivegroupsonegroupoffivestones,twogroupsofthree,andtwogroupsoftwostones.Thestonesaresurroundedbywhitegravel,whichiscarefullyrakedeachdaybythemonks.Theonlyvegetationinthegardenissomemossaroundthestones.Thegardenismeanttobeviewedfromaseatedpositionontheverandaofthehj,theresidenceoftheabbotofthemonastery.[10]

    ThegardenatDaisenin(15091513)tookamoreliteraryapproachthanRyanji.Therea"river"ofwhitegravelrepresentsametaphoricaljourneythroughlifebeginningwithadrywaterfallinthemountains,passingthroughrapidsandrocks,andendinginatranquilseaofwhitegravel,withtwogravelmountains.

    TheinventionofthezengardenwascloselyconnectedwithdevelopmentsinJapaneseinklandscapepaintings.JapanesepainterssuchasSesshTy(14201506)andSoami(died1525)greatlysimplifiedtheirviewsofnature,showingonlythemostessentialaspectsofnature,leavinggreatareasofwhitearoundtheblackandgraydrawings.SoamiissaidtohavebeenpersonallyinvolvedinthedesignoftwoofthemostfamouszengardensinKyoto,RyanjiandDaisenin,thoughhisinvolvementhasneverbeendocumentedwithcertainty.

    MichelBaridonwrote,"ThefamouszengardensoftheMuromachiPeriodshowedthatJapanhadcarriedtheartofgardenstothehighestdegreeofintellectualrefinementthatitwaspossibletoattain."[11]

    Saihji,ortheMossGarden,anearlyzengardenfromthemid14thcentury.Themossarrivedmuchlater,whenthegardenwasnottended.

    ThegardenofGinkakujifeaturesareplicaofMountFujimadeofgravel,inagravelsea.itwasthemodelforsimilarminiaturemountainsinJapanesegardensforcenturies.

    PartofthegardenatRyanji(late15thcentury),themostabstractofallJapanesezengardens

    ClassictriadrockcompositionatRyanji.

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    InthegardenofDaisenin,ariverofgraveltakesvisitorsonametaphoricaljourneythroughlife

    Thewhitegravel"ocean"ofthegardenofDaisenji,towhichthegravelriverflows.

    TheGardenoftheBlissfulMountainatZuihoin,asubtempleofDaitokuji.

    InZuihoingarden,someoftherocksaresaidtoformacross.ThegardenwasbuiltbythedaimyotomoSrin,whowasaconverttoChristianity.

    Laterrockgardens

    DuringtheEdoperiod,thelargepromenadegardenbecamethedominantstyleofJapanesegarden,butzengardenscontinuedtoexistatzentemples.Afewsmallnewrockgardenswerebuilt,usuallyaspartofagardenwherearealstreamorpondwasnotpractical.

    In1880,thebuildingsofTfukujitempleinKyoto,oneoftheoldesttemplesinthecity,weredestroyedbyafire.In1940,thetemplecommissionedthelandscapehistorianandarchitectShigemoriMireitorecreatethegardens.Hecreatedfourdifferentgardens,oneforeachfaceofthemaintemplebuilding.Hemadeonegardenwithfiveartificialhillscoveredwithgrass,symbolizingthefivegreatancienttemplesofKyotoamodernrockgarden,withverticalrocks,symbolizingMountHoraialarge"sea"ofwhitegravelrakedinacheckboardpatternandanintimategardenwithswirlingsandpatterns.[12]

    Inthelastcentury,zengardenshaveappearedinmanycountriesoutsideofJapan.

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    ThegardenofTfukuji(1940).ThefivehillssymbolizethefivegreatzentemplesofKyoto.

    ThemodernzengardenatTfukuji(1940).

    Azengardeninacheckboardpattern,atTfukuji(1940).

    AcourtyardzengardenatTfukuji(1940).

    partofthemodernzengardenatTfukuji(1940).The"islands"oftheimmortals.

    PartofthemodernzengardenatTfukuji(1940).

    ShitennjiHonbgarden

    AsmallgardenintheJapaneseTeaGardenofGoldenGatePark,inSanFrancisco

    SandandstonegardenlocatedinthePortlandJapaneseGardens.

    An'yinGardenofTaisanjiinKobe,Hyogo,Japan.

    Rosanjigarden

    ShitennjiinOsaka

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    AdachiMuseumofArt

    Taizin,Myshinji,inKyoto

    Kmyzenji

    Jissin,inKyoto(Iwakura)

    GroundplanoftheTsuboenkaresansuiorZengarden,Lelystad,Netherlands